BIO 425 test questions.docx - True False Questions 1 The...

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Unformatted text preview: True / False Questions 1. The frontal plane passes vertically through the body or an organ and divides it into equal right and left portions. 2. The cut of a guillotine is an example of a section done in the midsagittal plane. 3. The appendicular region consists of the head, neck and trunk. 4. The appendix is typically found in the right lower quadrant. 5. The liver is proximal to the diaphragm. 6. When the abdomen is divided into nine regions, the most superior horizontal line is called the midclavicular line. 7. The most lateral and superior region of the abdomen is called the hypochondriac region. 8. The heart occupies a space called the pericardial cavity between the parietal and visceral pericardium. 9. The cranial cavity contains the brain. Multiple Choice Questions 10. The __________ cavity is inferior to the _____________ cavity. A. cranial; thoracic B. thoracic; abdominopelvic C. pericardial; pleural D. thoracic; peritoneal E. thoracic; cranial 11. The most superior segment of the upper limb is called the __________. A. digits B. manual region C. carpal region D. antebrachial region E. brachial region 12. The __________ region of the left lower limb is proximal to the __________ region of the ipsilateral limb. A. carpal; manual B. femoral; crural C. antebrachial; brachial D. tarsal; crural E. brachial; femoral 13. The ______ wraps around the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. A. pleura B. pericardium C. meninges D. visceral peritoneum E. parietal peritoneum 14. The ___________ is an organ directly associated with the _________ and __________ systems. A. stomach; digestive; reproductive B. pancreas; digestive; endocrine C. small intestine; digestive; integumentary D. testis; male reproductive; urinary E. ovary; female reproductive; lymphatic 15. Which one of the following is not in the correct anatomical position? A. Arms at sides B. Standing upright C. Face and eyes facing forward D. Feet flat on the floor E. Palms facing hips 16. The plane that passes vertically through the body or an organ and divides it into anterior and posterior portions is called the __________ plane. A. sagittal B. frontal C. median D. transverse E. oblique 17. The interscapular region is __________ to the scapular region. A. anterior B. posterior C. medial D. lateral E. superior 18. The sternum (breastbone) is __________ to the vertebral column. A. anterior B. posterior C. superior D. inferior E. medial 19. The __________ part of the small intestine is the part closest to the stomach. A. dorsal B. ventral C. proximal D. distal E. medial 20. The right shoulder is __________ and __________ to the umbilical region. A. superior; lateral B. superior; medial C. inferior; lateral D. inferior; medial E. posterior; lateral 21. The trachea is __________ to the esophagus. A. superior B. dorsal C. anterior D. posterior E. inferior 22. In the cat, the head is _________ to the tail. In the human, the head is ________ to the gluteal region (buttock). A. superior; superior B. anterior; superior C. posterior; dorsal D. ventral; distal E. anterior; posterior Chapter 01 Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology True / False Questions 1. Sometimes anatomical terms come from origins that do not lend any insight into their meaning. 2. Feeling for swollen lymph nodes is an example of auscultation. 3. We can see through bones with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 4. Histology is the study of structures that can be observed without a magnifying lens. 5. Cells were first named by microscopist Robert Hooke. 6. All functions of the body can be interpreted as the effects of cellular activity. 7. The hypothetico-deductive method is common in physiology, whereas the inductive method is common in anatomy. 8. An individual scientific fact has more information than a theory. 9. Evolutionary (Darwinian) medicine traces some of our diseases to our evolutionary past. 10. The terms development and evolution have the same meaning in physiology. 11. Organs are made of tissues. 12. A molecule of water is more complex than a mitochondrion (organelle). 13. Homeostasis and occupying space are both unique characteristics of living things. 14. Positive feedback helps to restore normal function when one of the body's physiological variables gets out of balance. 15. Negative feedback is a self-amplifying chain of events that tends to produce rapid change in the body. 16. Anatomists around the world adhere to a lexicon of standard international terms, which stipulates both Latin names and accepted English equivalents. Multiple Choice Questions 17. Feeling structures with your fingertips is called _________, whereas tapping on the body and listening for sounds of abnormalities is called ____________. A. palpation; auscultation B. auscultation; percussion C. percussion; auscultation D. palpation; percussion E. percussion; palpation 18. Known as "the father of modern anatomy," __________ was the first to publish accurate drawings of the body. A. Vesalius B. Maimonides C. Harvey D. Aristotle E. van Leeuwenhoek 19. The most influential medical textbook of the ancient era was written by __________. A. Hippocrates B. Aristotle C. Galen D. Vesalius E. Avicenna 20. Which of these is the best imaging technique for routinely examining the anatomical development of a fetus? A. Auscultation B. PET scan C. MRI D. Sonography E. Radiography 21. The terms physics, physiology, and physician come from a term that __________ proposed to distinguish natural causes from supernatural causes. A. Hippocrates B. Plato C. Schwann D. Aristotle E. Avicenna 22. The process of using numerous observations to develop general principles and predictions about a specific subject is called __________. A. experimental design B. the deductive method C. the inductive method D. a hypothesis E. statistical testing 23. Most people think that ulcers are caused by psychological stress. It was discovered that an acid-resistant bacterium, Heliobacter pylori, lives in the lining of the stomach. If these bacteria cause ulcers, then treatment with an antibiotic should reduce ulcers. This line of investigation is an example of __________. A. hypothetical reasoning B. hypothetico-deductive reasoning C. the inductive method D. experimental design E. statistical analysis 24. An educated speculation or a possible answer to a question is called a(n) __________. A. scientific method B. theory C. law D. hypothesis E. fact 25. The use of controls and statistical testing are two aspects of experimental design that help to ensure __________. A. an adequate sample size B. objective and reliable results C. experimental bias D. psychosomatic effects E. treatment groups 26. ______________ is a process that submits a scientist's ideas to the critical judgment of other specialists in the field before the research is funded or published. A. Adjudication B. Statistical testing C. Falsification D. Peer review E. Hypothetico-deductive testing 27. Which of the following would contain the greatest amount of information that scientists consider to be true to the best of their knowledge? A. A fact B. A law of nature C. A hypothesis D. An equation E. A theory 28. The study of the structure and function of cells is called ___________. A. cytology B. gross anatomy C. exploratory physiology D. comparative physiology E. radiology 30. A new drug apparently increases short-term memory. Students were divided randomly into two groups at the beginning of the semester. One group was given the memory pill once a day for the semester, and the other group was given a same-looking pill, but it was just sugar. The sugar pill is termed a(n) __________. A. controlled pill B. placebo C. treatment pill D. variable E. effective dose 31. Two groups of people were tested to determine whether garlic lowers blood cholesterol levels. One group was given 800 mg of garlic powder daily for four months and exhibited an average 12% reduction in the blood cholesterol. The other group was not given any garlic and after four months averaged a 3% reduction in cholesterol. The group that was not given the garlic was the __________ group. A. peer B. test C. treatment D. control E. double-blind 32. A change in the genetic composition of a population over time is called __________. A. mutation B. natural selection C. selection pressure D. evolution E. adaptation 33. The constant appearance of new strains of influenza virus is an example of __________. A. a model B. evolution C. selection pressure D. survivorship E. success 34. The principal theory of how evolution works is called __________. A. natural pressure B. selective pressure C. darwinian pressure D. natural adaptation E. natural selection 35. Which of the following was an adaptation that evolved in connection with human upright walking? A. Hair B. Fully opposable thumbs C. Stereoscopic vision D. Color vision E. Spinal and pelvic anatomy 36. Stereoscopic vision provides __________. A. opposable perception B. color perception C. depth perception D. bipedalism E. opposition of thumbs 37. A human is born before his/her nervous system has matured. This is traceable to __________. A. their inability to regulate body temperature B. skeletal adaptations to bipedalism C. the arboreal habits of early primates D. the conditions of modern civilization E. the diet of early species of Homo 38. The species of modern humans is called _________. A. Homo erectus B. Homo sapiens C. Homo habilis D. early Homo E. Australopithecus 39. Most primates are ________________, meaning they live in trees. A. prehensile B. bipedal C. cursorial D. troglodytic E. arboreal 40. An _______________ is composed of two or more tissues types, whereas ____________ are microscopic structures in a cell. A. organ system; organs B. organ system; organelles C. organ; organelles D. organ; molecules E. organelle; molecules 41. Which of the following lists levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest? A. Organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system B. Organ system, organ, cell, tissue, organelle C. Organ system, organelle, tissue, cell, organ D. Organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle E. 42. Which of the following lists examples of body structures from the simplest to the most complex? A. Mitochondrion, connective tissue, protein, stomach, adipocyte (fat cell) B. Protein, mitochondrion, adipocyte (fat cell), connective tissue, stomach C. Mitochondrion, connective tissue, stomach, protein, adipocyte (fat cell) D. Protein, adipocyte (fat cell), stomach, connective tissue, mitochondrion E. Protein, stomach, connective tissue, adipocyte (fat cell), mitochondrion 43. A(n) _____________ is a group of similar cells and their intercellular materials in a discrete region of an organ performing a specific function. A. macromolecule B. organ system C. organelle D. organism E. tissue 44. Taking apart a clock to see how it works is similar to ____________ thinking about human physiology. A. comparative B. evolutionary C. holistic D. inductive E. reductionist 45. _______________ approaches understanding of the human body by studying the interactions of its parts. A. Naturalism B. Reductionism C. Vitalism D. Holism E. Rationalism 48. _________________ are the simplest body structures considered alive. A. Organ systems B. Organs C. Cells D. Organelles E. Molecules Blooms Level: 1. Remember Gradable: automatic HAPS Objective: A06.02 Give an example of each level of organization. HAPS Topic: Module A06 Levels of organization. Learning Outcome: 01.06a State the characteristics that distinguish living organisms from nonliving objects. Section: 01.05 Topic: Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology 49. All of the following are human organ systems except ___________. A. skeletal B. endocrine C. epidermal D. reproductive E. lymphatic Blooms Level: 1. Remember Gradable: automatic HAPS Objective: A06.02 Give an example of each level of organization. HAPS Objective: A07.01 List the organ systems of the human body and their major components. HAPS Topic: Module A06 Levels of organization. HAPS Topic: Module A07 Survey of body systems. Learning Outcome: 01.05a List the levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest. Section: 01.05 Topic: Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology 50. All of the following are organs except __________. A. teeth B. the skin C. nails D. the liver E. the digestive system Blooms Level: 1. Remember Gradable: automatic HAPS Objective: A06.02 Give an example of each level of organization. HAPS Objective: A07.01 List the organ systems of the human body and their major components. HAPS Topic: Module A06 Levels of organization. HAPS Topic: Module A07 Survey of body systems. Learning Outcome: 01.05a List the levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest. Section: 01.05 Topic: Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology 51. Metabolism is the sum of __________ and __________. A. inhalation; exhalation B. growth; differentiation C. anabolism; catabolism D. positive; negative feedback E. responsiveness; movement Blooms Level: 1. Remember Gradable: automatic Learning Outcome: 01.06a State the characteristics that distinguish living organisms from nonliving objects. Section: 01.06 Topic: Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology 52. We live in an ever-changing environment outside of our body, yet our internal conditions remain relatively stable. This is called __________. A. homeostasis B. metastasis C. responsiveness D. adaptation E. evolution Blooms Level: 1. Remember Gradable: automatic HAPS Objective: B01.01 Define homeostasis. HAPS Topic: Module B01 Definition. Learning Outcome: 01.06c Define homeostasis and explain why this concept is central to physiology. Section: 01.06 Topic: Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology 53. During exercise, one generates excess heat and the body temperature rises. As a response, blood vessels dilate in the skin, warm blood flows closer to the body surface, and heat is lost. This is an example of __________. A. negative feedback B. positive feedback C. dynamic equilibrium D. integration control E. set point adjustment 54. When a woman is giving birth, the head of the baby pushes against her cervix and stimulates the release of the hormone oxytocin. Oxytocin travels in the blood and stimulates the uterus to contract. Labor contractions become more and more intense until the baby is expelled. This is an example of __________. A. negative feedback B. positive feedback C. dynamic equilibrium D. integration control E. set point adjustment 55. Which of the following is most likely to cause disease? A. Positive feedback B. Negative feedback C. Homeostasis D. Equilibrium E. Irritability 56. Blood glucose concentration rises after a meal and stimulates the pancreas to release the hormone insulin. Insulin travels in the blood and stimulates the uptake of glucose by body cells from the bloodstream, thus reducing blood glucose concentration. This is an example of _________. A. negative feedback B. positive feedback C. dynamic equilibrium D. integration control E. set point adjustment 57. Which of the following is not an aspect that could result in physiological variation? A. Age B. Gender C. Environment D. Physical activity E. These are all aspects that can cause physiological variation. 58. The change in size of the bone marrow (where blood cells are produced) as an infant matures is an example of __________, whereas the transformation of blood stem cells into white blood cells is an example of __________. A. development; differentiation B. growth; development C. growth; differentiation D. differentiation; growth E. differentiation; development 59. Three common components of a feedback loop are _________, __________, and __________. A. stimulus; integrating (control) center; organ system B. stimulus; receptor; integrating (control) center C. receptor; integrating (control) center; effector D. receptor; organ; organ system E. receptor; integrating (control) center; organ system 60. Negative feedback loops are __________. A. homeostatic mechanisms B. not homeostatic mechanisms C. associated with "vicious circles" D. self-amplifying cycles 61. The prefix hypo- means _______________, whereas hyper- means _____________. A. front; back B. right; left C. inside; outside D. clear; dark E. below; above 62. The term fallopian tube (uterine tube) is an example of __________. A. a Latin root used in medical terminology B. the use of prefixes to name an anatomical structure C. the use of suffixes to name an anatomical structure D. an eponym E. an acronym 63. Hypercalcemia means _________. A. elevated calcium levels in blood B. lowered calcium levels in bone C. elevated sodium levels in blood D. elevated calcium levels in bone E. lowered calcium levels in the blood 64. The plural of axilla (armpit) is ____________, whereas the plural of appendix is ___________. A. axillae; appendices B. axillides; appendages C. axillies; appendi D. axilli; appendices 65. The plural of villus (hair) is ____________, whereas the plural of diagnosis is ____________. A. villuses; diagnosises B. villi; diagnoses C. villus; diagnosis D. villi; diagnosis E. villuses; diagnosis 66. The lexicon of standard international anatomical terms is __________. A. formed from thousands of Italian word roots B. formed from thousands of French word roots C. called Nomina Anatomica (NA) D. formed from thousands of English word roots E. called Terminologia Anatomica (TA) 67. The study of normal body structures is called __________. A. microscopy B. pathology C. physiology D. anatomy E. biology 68. The study of how hormones function is called __________. A. histology B. neuroanatomy C. neurophysiology D. pathophysiology E. endocrinology 69. The study of how the body functions is called __________. A. histology B. neuroanatomy C. anatomy D. chemistry E. physiology 70. A physiological __________ is a difference in chemical concentration, electrical charge, physical pressure, temperature, or other variables between one point and another. A. membrane B. feedback loop C. imbalance D. barrier E. gradient Blooms Level: 1. Remember Gradable: automatic Learning Outcome: 01.06f Define gradient, describe the variety of gradients in human physiology, and identify some forms of matter and energy that flow down gradients. Section: 01.06 Topic: Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology 71. Chemicals in a solution can move down a concentration gradient. This means the chemical will move from the area of __________ concentration to the area of _________ concentration. A. high; high B. low; low C. equal; equal D. low; high E. high; low Blooms Level: 1. Remember Gradable: automatic Learning Outcome: 01.06f Define gradient, describe the variety of gradients in human physiology, and identify some forms of matter and energy that flow down gradients. Section: 01.06 Topic: Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology 72. Which of the following is not an example of a physiological gradient? A. Pressure B. Tissue C. Concentration D. Electrical E. Thermal Blooms Level: 1. Remember Gradable: automatic Learning Outcome: 01.06f Define gradient, describe the variety of gradients in human physiology, and identify some forms of matter and energy that flow down gradients. Section: 01.06 Topic: Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology 73. DNA is an example of an __________, whereas PET scan is an example of an _________. A. abbreviation; acronym B. acronym; abbreviation C. acronym; eponym D. eponym; abbreviation E. eponym; acronym Blooms Level: 3. Apply Gradable: automatic HAPS Topic: Module A05 Basic terminology. Learning Outcome: 01.07e State some reasons why the literal meaning of a word may not lend to insight into its definition. Section: 01.07 Topic: Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology 74. Precise spelling is important in anatomy because __________. A. there are many similar terms in anatomy that refer to different structures B. it's easier to remember acronyms when spelled correctly C. it's important to p...
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