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EEMB 113 Midterm ReviewMidterm review:VocabularyKnow how to apply these and some examples of each1.Immutable: unchanging over time, unable to be changed 2.Ecological niche: spp to environmental condition 3.Apomorphy: a derived character4.Synapomorphy: share derived character that unites sister groups5.Autapomorphy: derived character unique to particular taxon6.Symplesiomorphy: primitive character common to 2 or more clades, can not be used to establish interrelationship 7.Homoplasy: similar features that evolve independently in 2 or more clades. Can be due to convergence, parallel evolution, or reversal. 8.Divergence: the process of diverging 9.Speciation: the formation of new/distinct spp. in the course of evolution10.Allopatric speciation: mode of speciation occurs when spp. are isolated from one another due to a geographical barrier11.Vicariance: barrier develops to stop gene flow between 2 parts of a formerly unified lineage (plate tectonics, development of mountains, shift in rivers, climate change changing habitat…) 12.Natural History: the story of our living Earth. Begins with direct observation and study of organisms in the conditions under which they actually live. 13.Ecology: The distribution and abundance of organisms. Relationship between the living and nonliving parts of the world (Predation, competition…) 14.Physiological ecology: study of how organisms are adapted to their environment and how they deal with changes in their environment physiologically (osmoregulation, respiration…) 15.Behavioral ecology: study of decisions that individuals make that shape their survival and fitness (mate selection…) 16.Taxonomy: naming/classifying groups of organisms in the basis of shared characteristics 17.Phylogeny: relationship showing the evolutionary relationships among various spp. •Definitely also know how monophyletic, polyphyletic and paraphyletic trees differ •monophyletic: Descended from a common evolutionary ancestor or ancestral group, especially one not shared with any other group.