10.09 - 10.09.07 History So was it truly a revolutionary...

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10.09.07 History So was it truly a revolutionary war or was it just a conflict between the elites? Republican ideology was conservative, it was a gentry ideology that reserved power to the elite, it had very little to do with what we know as democracy. Adam Smith saw this: he saw the leaders as ready to govern what they saw an empire of their own The colonial elite are becoming leaders of this empire So what is a revolution?—usually to refer to a change that is democratizing in revolutionary ways French Revolution: overthrew ruling monarch of hereditary system that had exploited the majority of population Russian Revolution of 1970: overthrew the czar This paradigm of a major democratizing social revolution not just toppling a dictator but vastly increasing political rights to include expansion of education and rights for, basic access to health for majority of population American Revolution: how meaningful and democratic a change was it? Was the issue whether the British elites would keep ruling America or should it be a more democratic nation, something truly revolutionary? (Ie: would it just be like GB just under a diff name or democracy? Last q: how did revolution affect the most glaringly undemocratic feature—slavery in USA? What about Indians? Women?: o Not much change but there was some change in thinking such as Abigail Adams o Evidence about gender looks really minimal Today we’re talking about class and race, who were the revolutionaries, how ordinary people decided to be for against, race: how it affected slavery I. Widening War (1775-1776) a. Broke out between Massachusetts militia and British army at Lexington and Concord. On American side, it was not officially declared by a unified colonial body but there was a group about to meet—the Second Continental Congress b. Second Continental Congress i. Had representatives from each of the 13 colonies ii. They were decided about how to respond iii. Appointed George Washington to head a continental army, started to borrow money to buy guns and ammunition
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iv. Sent the: Olive Branch Petition: saying they are loyal subjects that are just asking for the rights of Englishman and please address the grievances 1. Some people at this time were also saying Congress pay for the tea c. Bunkard Hill—Bloody d. Fort Taranoga?—seized by colonists : got some cannons e. London: George III declared in 1775 colonies are in state of rebellion and Britain in a state of war i. In Nov, trade cut off and began to blockade the borts, and all ships subject to seizure and crew open to impressments ii. In dec 1775: German mercenary soldiers hired iii. These acts were serious and spread enthusiasm for independence around Mass 1. 15,000 militiamen flocked to mass and surrounded Gage and his army f. Lord Dunmore: *south* after he lost a battle with the Virginia militia, he retreated to a warship and issued a proclamation to any slave who joined the British army i. He raised a force of 800 African men ii.
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