10.23 - 10.23.2007 Federal fathers believed their time was...

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10.23.2007 Federal fathers believed their time was a time of CRISIS and used eloquent speech to describe it. The United States was a small and weak country on the periphery of a set of titanic struggles centered in Europe at war basically the whole time 1790-1800’s. Note during this time the Federalists (during first federal government) = Pro-Consitution I. First federal government a. Everyone who was elected to the Congress, knew that this was a precedent setting. If the government was going to work, they need to set the working struggle i. Title for President: “His elective highness” an example to decision “Mr. President” b. Federalists v. Antifederalists i. Advantage of Federalists: George Washington supported the Constitution 1. He was a overwhelming hero, and people could agree on the post of president b/c Washington would be the president. ii. First election Federalists swept and Washington became president 1. End of Antifederalists iii. Implication People who wanted a strong government dominated the first government 1. Madison led the Congress a. Passed the tax law right away which set the precedent of giving the government a source of money independent of state legislatures b. Tax on imports = Tariffs 2. Executive: First Congress created the cabinet = President’s staff a. Secretary of War, Foreign Affairs, Treasury, Attorney General (Federal government’s lawyer –a lesser post at this time as a part time job with a private job), Post Master General (Important b/c he got to appoint a lot of people – patronage) 3. Judiciary a. Established in 1789 -- Judiciary Act b. Created Supreme Court of 6 Justice c. Circuit of lower courts—at this time Supreme Court Justices actually traveled around these circuits c. With the establishment of the executive staff, and organizing the judiciary, a strong federal government was established in systematic basis II. Washington, D.C. a. This actual government was not very strong b. Geographical issues: i. They didn’t want the city to dominant the government like London dominated the British government (also republican ideology)
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ii. Chose a place where no one lived and was just woods and swamps 1. South didn’t want it in the north cities where abolitionists tempted their slaves 2. Some were confident that the capital will draw its own people 3. “L’Enfant Plan” Physical Expression of the Constitution itself in the plan for the Capital a. No city center: just organized around 3 foci : President’s house, Congress, and Justice Building b. Broad diagonal avenues leading out from the three focus points (named after states): that make Washington accessible from the outside i. Ideology: Washington is accessible to the constituents of government = open to outside c. Very hard to get around within i. Congress, Supreme Court, White House sheltered from each other no direct road ii. Idea about the nature of the new government = separation of powers d. Grand and ambitious plan i. 1800’s not that many buildings actually built iii. Actually Planning/Building: 1.
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