11.20 - 11.20.07 There was development in the north but it...

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11.20.07 There was development in the north but it happened to a much lesser degree in the south. More often in the south slave labor was used than free labor. There was little urban growth in the south other than Baltimore and New Orleans… Why? Northern and British merchants dominated the handling of the South’s commercial staple There was less immigration b/c fewer opportunities for jobs… b/c many working people were enslaved. There was a pale reflection of the second great awakening….Temperance movement did pretty well…it did the best…but there was no other organizations as southerners thought these organizations posed a threat to their society…. Rather in south: - There was an expansion of slave society King Cotton was so profitable and cotton prices were so constantly rising that southern entrepreneurs focused their attention on acquiring more land and acquiring more slaves. - Today we are going to describe the structure of plantation antebellum community today I. Numbers (3 population statistics that are crucial in understanding the society) a. Of a southern white population of 8 million only 383,000 (1/4 of heads of families) owned any slaves at all. i. Great majority of southern whites were not slave holders….no direct connection to the institution of slavery. ii. Were yeoman farmers that worked their own land…growing their own crops iii. They might have a couple acres in cotton if they can ship it to raise cash b. Of the whites who owned slaves, the vast majority owned few i. Sixty percent of all slave holders owned five or fewer slaves ii. Classic case—man works with a few slaves in the field, may own a woman for working in the house iii. Rule of thumb for planter in this period: owns land and twenty or more slaves 1. In 1860: 46,000 planters 3% of white family heads qualify as planters very few iv. Only 2300 whites owned the really big plantations with 100 or more slaves. c. Why was this? i. Slaves were expensive, an 18 yr old man got the highest price around $1000 in late 1840s which is three times the annual income of a white laborer 1850’s 1600$ why few whites owned them they were EXPENSIVE
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ii. Slaves were becoming more expensive over the antebellum period it was one of the best possible industries of how profitable slavery was d. Third #: i. If we look at slaves rather than masters plantations are much more important setting ii. Of 4 million slaves in 1860, over half were owned by planters. A quarter of all slaves were owned by planters who owned 50 or more slaves 1. A white population of 8 thousand owned a population of 1 million blacks iii. For African Americans, the plantation was extremely important, more than half of them lived there. 1. It defined a lot of the black experience iv. Half did not live on plantations 1. They were scattered along farms… 2. But the plantation experience was more important to African Americans b/c the concentration of African Americans on the plantations made them the locus of black
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