10.25 - 10.25.07 Political Science I Review a Political...

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10.25.07 Political Science I. Review a. Political Parties – organizations who try to influence govt by electing people to important government positions i. PIE ii. PIG iii. PAO b. Focus on PIE and PAO for midterm i. PIE-how are party in electorate 1. Changes over time a. Dealignment – issue of whether people are moving away from the political parties and calling themselves independents i. There are more independents now than in the past but if we take out closet partisans still the overall number of independents have increased slightly over time b. Party Polarization – to what extent are democrats and republicans further apart on issues i. Strong party identifiers are increasingly far apart from each other on issues that reach the most attention 1. Gay rights 2. Social Welfare 3. Social Security 4. Affirmative Action 5. Immigration 6. Civil Rights ii. However it is a fairly small percent of the public only 10% on either side consider themselves as “Strong” partisans iii. So there is evidence but should not overdramatize it iv. Most people are “purple” ii. PAO—how changed over time 1. Become much weaker over the course of history…parties were traditionally thought to be weak to begin with but got even weaker a. Decline of spoils system, less patronage, driven by reforms to civil service i. Used to be that parties could get people to work for them by offering them a job ii. Once it declined parties became weaker as it was harder to get people to work for them to get candidates elected
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b. McGovern Reforms – reduced the control that party elites had over who would get nominated i. Changed the process to include more participation ii. Party leaders have no influence over rank and file party members c. Money in Politics i. Soft money—you can make unlimited contributions to national political parties who would give it to state organizations which would use it for issue advocacy ads for a candidate ii. Parties no longer have control over this money and therefore are weaker again 2. Parties used to influence things through jobs and money, and patronage but no longer have these things at their disposal 3. They have become weaker with changes to the rules of the game a. Nominations Game: changing rules changes outcome II. Political Parties Continued: a. Third parties i. Are just parties outside of Dems and Reps ii. Ex: Green Party – Ralph Nadar iii. Ross Perot 1992 (20% of vote overall—but no electoral votes) 1. It requires that he needs a majority in a particular state or district iv. Impact (2 ways): 1. In close elections third party candidates matter b/c they take away
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10.25 - 10.25.07 Political Science I Review a Political...

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