Sociology final Study Guide

Sociology final Study Guide - 1 2 3 4 Sociology Study Guide...

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Sociology Study Guide 1. What three things are notable about hunting and gathering societies a. Healthier, more egalitarian, more free time, large majority did this, hunted and gathered for food, nomadic, no specific gender roles b. First type of society c. Usually had a shaman i. A spiritual leader that was thought to influence spiritual forces d. Most family members related by ancestry or marriage i. Family only distinct social institution ii. Distributes food, educates its children, nurses its sick, and provides for virtually all needs e. Of those that remain are: i. Pygmies of central Africa, the aborigines of Australia, and groups in South America 2. During Which type of society did equality between men and women begin to decline a. Horticultural i. Gender roles begin to form 1. women and children are no longer equal 3. What is the difference between a strong tie and a week tie. a. Strong tie i. Direct relationship 1. can be a dyad, marriages, best friends, parents, children, and siblings b. Weak tie i. Indirect relationships 1. know someone through another person 2. great for finding jobs 4. What are dyads, triads, and coalitions a. Dyad i. Group of two people ii. The smallest group you can have iii. Interaction is focused on them, most intimate of human relationships, require both members to participate and be committed b. Triad i. Group of three people 1. with three people the interaction between the first two usually decreases a. creates strain 2. although intereaction is less in triads they are inherently stronger and give greater stability to a relationship. 3. tend to form coalitions c. coalition
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i. the alignment of some members of a group against other members of the group 1. child parent relationships d. as small groups grow larger it becomes more stable but its intensity or intimacy decreases 5. Who came up with the notion of differential association a. Edwin Sutherland i. We learn to deviate from or conform to society’s norms primarily from the different groups we associate with. 6. What is the premise behind strain theory a. Robert Merton’s term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal (such as success) but withholds from many the approved means of reaching that goal i. One adaptation to strain is crime: the choice of an innovative means (one outside the approved system) to attain the cultural goal 7. What are the five techniques of neutralization listed in the book a. Denial of responsibility i. Im not responsible because b. Denial of Injury i. What I did wasn’t wrong because no one got hurt c. Denial of a Victim i. People deserve what they get d. Condemnation of the Condemners i. Deny others have the right to judge you e. Appeal to higher loyalties i. Consider loyalty to the gang more important than following the norms 8. What is the difference between slavery and indentured servitude a. Slavery i. Owed a debt, conquered, criminal b. Indentured servitude i. Time limit ii. Volunteer 9. What is the best method for maintaining stratification a. Ideology i.
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