Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 The History and Scope of Psychology...

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Chapter 1: The History and Scope of Psychology Psychology – science of behavior and the mind Behavior – observable actions of a person Mind – an individual’s sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, dreams, motives, emotional feelings, and other subjective experiences Psychology is a science that endeavors to answer questions through the systematic collection and logical analysis of objectively observable data Before Psychology: Preparing the Intellectual Ground Dualism – each human being consists of two distinct but intimately conjoined entities (material body and an immaterial soul) Descartes’s Treatise of Man and The Passions of the Soul contended that humans do not have souls o Humans only differ from animals in having thought, or conscious deliberation and judgment o Saw area of brain as location of soul to control body Hobbes’s materialism – the soul does not exist; only matter and energy exist. All human behavior can be explained as physical processes of the body Empiricism – all human knowledge and thought derive from sensory experiences. Ideas are formed from experience Nativism – elementary ideas are innate to the mind and do not have be gained from experience Sechenov’s reflexology – all human behavior occurs as reflexes in response to stimuli Localization of function in the brain – specific parts of brain serve specific functions o Led to idea that natural divisions may exist among various mental processes and the mind can be understood by identifying those basic processes and their
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