Anatomy and Physiology II Notes Collective - - - - - -...

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Anatomy and Physiology II Notes Collective -Chapter 19 -- The Blood-The Cardiovascular System-Consists of:-Blood (a liquid connective tissue travelling within the blood vessels)-Heart (pump)-Blood vessels (series of closed tubes)-Function of Blood-Transportation: -Gases-Oxygen-Carbon dioxide -Nutrients-Hormones-Wastes-Heat -Regulation: -Body temperature-pH-Concentration of fluid in tissues (interstitial fluid) -Protection-Blood clotting-Defense against microbes-Physical Characteristics of Blood-More viscous than water-Temperature is 38 degrees C or 100.4 degrees F-Volume:-Average adult volume is 5 liters-Average adult male volume is 5-6 liters-Average adult woman volume is 4-5 liters-pH is 7.35-7.45-Color varies with its oxygen content-Bright red when 100% oxygen saturated-Dark red when <100% oxygen saturated-Components of Blood-ECM: plasma-Formed elements: cells and cell fragments-Cells:-Erythrocytes-Leukocytes-Cell fragments:-thrombocytes/platelets-These are not cells, they are fragments of bursted megakaryocytes-Blood Plasma
-55% of blood -Contains:-91.5 % water-8.5% solutes; mostly (7%) proteins formed by hepatocytes-**hematocrit in average sized adult is 45%**-Proteins-Albumin-Globulin-Fibrin-Many others-Electrolytes-Sodium ion-Potassium ion-Chloride ion-Bicarbonate ion-Many more-Gasses-Oxygen-Carbon dioxide -Nutrients-Glucose-Amino acids-Fatty acids-Vitamins-More-Wastes-Uric acid-Urea-Bilirubin -More-Hormones-Thyroid hormones-Insulin-Epinephrine-More-Erythrocytes (RBCs)-Most numerous type of cell in blood-Main function is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide-In a male, 5.4 million RBCs/microliter of blood-In female, 4.8 million/microliter-Hematocrit-The percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBCs-Male: 40-54 %-Female: 38-46 %
-Average adult between both sexes is 45%-Causes for lower hematocrit in female than male:-In male, more testosterone → more EPO released from kidneys →more stimulation for erythropoiesis -In female during reproductive life, excessive loss of blood in menstruation-RBC Anatomy-7-8 microns in diameter-Plasma membrane is strong and flexible-No nucleus-Lack most organelles-Biconcave shape to increase surface area for diffusion of gasses-Cytoplasm contains hemoglobin-Capable of anaerobic glycolysis (no mitochondria)-Structure of Hemoglobin (made in RBM)-Composed of four polypeptide (globin) chains-2 alpha-2 beta-Are mostly connected to each other by hydrogen bonds-Each chain has a heme group attached to it-An iron ion at the center of the heme groups-Only place where oxygen can bind in a 1:1 ratio-Heme Group-An iron ion at the center of each heme group-Iron is a nutrient at the center, but is toxic when it is free-There are 4 heme groups per hemoglobin and one heme group per globin chain-Transporting Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide-Each iron ion can combine reversibly with one oxygen molecule-Carbon dioxide combines reversibly with amino acids in the globin part-Hemoglobin transports 23% of carbon dioxide-Hemoglobin transports 98.5% of oxygen-Oxygen transport → binds to iron and is dissolved in plasma-98.5% bound to hemoglobin

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Term
Fall
Professor
Shahnaz Kanani
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