Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Social Influences on Behavior Pg...

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Chapter 14: Social Influences on Behavior Pg. 539-559 Social Pressure: how our concern for others’ judgments affects our actions Social psychology – an attempt to understand and explain how the thought, feeling, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (social pressure) Kurt Lewin’s field theory – each person exists in a continuously changing field of forces that push or pull the person in various directions; consists of the person’s perception of or beliefs about other people’s expectations or desires concerning his behavior Bibb Latane’s social impact theory – predicting the amount of social pressure a person will feel at any given time o Number, strength, and immediacy of the sources of that pressure determine social pressure o Impact of pressure source on any given target decreases as the number of targets increases (spread blame throughout group rather than alone) Social facilitation – enhancing effect of an audience on task performance; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks Social interference – decline in performance when observers present; occurs with complex or new tasks Zajonc saw the primary effect of the presence of others as an increase in arousal, which facilitates dominate activities and interferes with nondominant activities. o Effect depends on the performer’s concern about being evaluated. o Challenge – added pressure to perform well is experienced as a challenge when the person feels that he will do well o Threat – added pressure when the person feels will fail Impression management – entire set of ways by which people consciously and unconsciously modify their behavior to influence others’ impressions of them o Intuitive politician – we campaign for ourselves and our interests naturally and without consciousness because we require approval and cooperation of other people to achieve what do we want in life o Good, modest, and sincere
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