Introduction Our everyday decisions rely on quick categorization abilities Attention ○ Memory ○ • We quickly process incoming stimuli by organizing them into categories • Without the ability to categorize, every decision becomes overwhelming • Categorization is ever-occurring and often intuitive • Functions of Categorization Classifications groups dissimilar objects into the same categories Green apples, red apples and yellow apples can appear different but classify them all as apples we can assume they are all safe to eat ○ • Understanding identifies the intentions of a situation • Predicting uses past experiences to know what to expect • Communication uses specific words to describe ideas efficiently • Categorization can sometimes feel effortless • The illusion of the Expert The feeling that a task must be simple for everyone because it is simple for oneself Tying shoes § String theory to theoretical physicist but not to regular person § ○ • Rules Lee Brooks • Categories & Concepts Monday, October 28, 2019 1:12 PM
Rules don’t sufficiently explain categorization when asked to define rules, you ma it difficult to properly include and exclude items for category membership, yet wh given a test stimulus, you can effortlessly decide membership. This suggests to so psychologists that humans have internal representation of categories that is independent of the rules we try to define • For simple categories, we seem to be susceptible to the illusion of the expert We assume that if it is easy for us to categorize, then it must have a simple r ○ • Prototype Theory Prototype Theory - we categorize objects by comparing them to an internal "best representation of a given category • Prototypes are the average representation of all personal experiences • New objects are compared to the average representation in Prototype Theory • Responding quickly to familiar members is evidence for Prototype Theory •
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