study guide - Nestorians-Emphasized Christ's humanity over...

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Nestorians -Emphasized Christ’s humanity over his divinity in 431 and 451 -Nestorian leaders established themselves in the school at Edessa in Syria in 489 -Created a center of Nestorian higher education in the city of Nisibis -Managed to shape Persian Christianity and intellectual life -Insinuated themselves into power and influence -Teaching was in Syriac Abbasids -749: Came to power -762: al-Mansur moved capital from Damascus to Baghdad, on the Tigris River -Cultivated a religious climate -Transformed the empire from a warrior aristocracy into a centralized state -Persian influence apparent in the powerful royal advisors -Christian influence is evident in the practice of medicine Translation Movements -Greek to Arabic began under al-Mansur -Continued under Harun ar-Rashid -House of Wisdom in Baghdad-research institute Hunayn ibn Ishaq -808-873 -Head of House of Wisdom -studied medicine w/ physicians -Searched for manuscripts -Served as the translator under many caliphs -Worked w/ many others, compared w/ each other to avoid errors -Most of his works were medical, emphasis on Galen and Hippocrates -Instead of word-for-word, he grasped the meaning of a sentence Marginality thesis about Arabic Science -Foreign sciences never ceased to be viewed by Muslims as useless, alien, dangerous, went against orthodox thought, met no fundamental need, excluded from the educational system -Claimed that science in Islam was never more than a marginal pursuit -Scholars who went against grain of orthodox thought met no fundamental need and were excluded from the developing educational system -B/c of this foreign science survived on a margin and was never deeply integrated into Islamic culture al-Kindi -801-866 -Early Muslim scientist (math sciences) -Pursued the mathematical sciences under several Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad -Acknowledged his debt to ancient predecessors -Said that had it not been for the ancients, it would have been impossible to assemble the principles of truth -Conceived his obligation to be the completion, correction, and communication of this body of ancient learning -Conceived radiation as an incoherent process in which small parts of the luminous body radiate not as a group but each one independently of the others
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and in all directions -Work on light/vision --Radiation is an incoherent process ---Rays radiate independently in all directions and they’re not dependent on one another --Created a math approach to optics -Responsible for merging Aristotle and neoplatism Ibn al-Haytham -1040 -Served at the court in Cairo Followed Ptolemy in combining what had originally been separate Greek approaches to optical phenomena -Produced a new theory of vision, built on the idea that light is transmitted from the visual object to the eye Trivium and Quadrivium -Varro 116-127 BC -Wrote Nine Books of Disciplines -Important feature of this was its use of the liberal arts as organizing principles -He identified 9 arts: grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and musical theory -1 st 3 are the Trivium
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