psyc notes1 1-11 - 1:32:00 PM Psychology's Roots...

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14/01/2008 13:32:00 Psychology’s Roots Pre-scientific Psychology o Is the mind connected to the body or distinct? o Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience? Aristotle said we only gained knowledge through experience.  Thought mind was connected to body. Plato and Socrates thought we were born with all knowledge.  Mind and body separate. French Philosophers Renee Descartes agreed with Socrates  and Plato.  British Philosopher John Locke said there is no inborn  knowledge. Helped develop the modern view of empiricism o Empericism Knowledge comes from experience via the senses Science flourishes through observation and experiment. Fathers of psychology. o Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University  of Leipzig. (c. 1879) Measured the time it took for people to react to a ball dropping. o Titchner introduced structuralism Used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental  structure of the human mind.  Introspection is not very scientific. o William James felt it was more beneficial to study the evolved functions  of the brain’s activity Heavily influenced by Darwin.
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Functionalism focused on how behavioral processes function –  how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish. In the 1920s people became focused on observable behavior rather than the  mental processes. 1950s saw a synthesis of the two. Psychology      – The science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes  (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings) Contemporary Psychology Nature-nurture controversy o The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes  and experience make to development of psychological traits and  behaviors. Today people believe it’s a little of both Nature works on what nurture endows. 1/14 Psychology’s subfields o Basic research Pure science that aims to increase the knowledge base o Applied research Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems. o Clinical psychology Branch of psychology that studies, assesses and treats people  with psychological disorders o Psychiatry A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders Practiced by physicians who sometimes use medical (for  example, drug) treatments as well as psychotherapy Why study psychology? Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct  theories that organize observations and imply testable hypothesis
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Hindsight bias o We tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have  foreseen it o
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