psyc2 - 13:35:00 Association • We learn by association o...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 08/02/2008 13:35:00 Association • We learn by association o Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence o Aristotle 2000 years ago o John locke and David Hume 200 years ago • Associative learning o Learning that two events occur together Two stimuli A response and its consequences • operant conditioning o we learn to associate a response and its consequence classical conditioning • Ivan Pavlov o 1849-1936 o Russian physician/neurophysiologist o Nobel prize in 1904 o Studied digestive secretions • Classical conditioning o Organism comes to associate two stimuli o A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus • UnConditioned Stimulus (UCS) o Stimulus unconditionally—automatically and naturally— triggers a response • UnConditioned Response (UCR) o Unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus Salivation when food is in the mouth • Conditioned Stimulus (CS) o Originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response • Conditioned Response (CR) o Learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus • Acquisition o The initial stage in classical conditioning o The phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response o In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response • Extinction o Diminishing of a CR o In classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS o In operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced • Spontaneous Recovery o Reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR • Generalization o Tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses • Discrimination o In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS Behaviorism • John B. Watson o Viewed psychology as objective science Generally agreed-upon consensus today o Recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes Not universally accepted by all schools of thought today 08/02/2008 13:35:00 Operant Conditioning • Operant conditioning o Type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment • Respondent behavior o Occurs as an automatic response to stimulus o Behavior learned through classical conditioning • Operant behavior o Operates (acts) on environment o Produces consequences • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) o Elaborated Thorndike’s Law of effect o Developed behavioral technology • Law of effect o Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely....
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course PSYC 1101 taught by Professor Crystal during the Spring '08 term at UGA.

Page1 / 28

psyc2 - 13:35:00 Association • We learn by association o...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 5. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online