psyc2 - 13:35:00 Association • We learn by association o...

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08/02/2008 13:35:00 Association We learn by association o Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence o Aristotle 2000 years ago o John locke and David Hume 200 years ago Associative learning o Learning that two events occur together Two stimuli A response and its consequences operant conditioning o we learn to associate a response and its consequence classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov o 1849-1936 o Russian physician/neurophysiologist o Nobel prize in 1904 o Studied digestive secretions Classical conditioning o Organism comes to associate two stimuli o A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus
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UnConditioned Stimulus (UCS) o Stimulus unconditionally—automatically and naturally— triggers a response UnConditioned Response (UCR) o Unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus Salivation when food is in the mouth Conditioned Stimulus (CS) o Originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned Response (CR) o Learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus Acquisition o The initial stage in classical conditioning o The phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response o In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response Extinction o Diminishing of a CR o In classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS o In operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced Spontaneous Recovery o Reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR Generalization o Tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses
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Discrimination o In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS Behaviorism John B. Watson o Viewed psychology as objective science Generally agreed-upon consensus today o Recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes Not universally accepted by all schools of thought today
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08/02/2008 13:35:00 Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning o Type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment Respondent behavior o Occurs as an automatic response to stimulus o Behavior learned through classical conditioning Operant behavior o Operates (acts) on environment o Produces consequences B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) o Elaborated Thorndike’s Law of effect o Developed behavioral technology Law of effect o Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
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