psyc3 - 3/17/2008 1:26:00 PM Infancy and childhood:...

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17/03/2008 12:26:00 Infancy and childhood: cognitive development Egocentrism o The inability of the preoperational child to take another’s point of view Theory of Mind o People’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states – about their  feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict Social development Stranger anxiety o Fear of strangers that infants commonly display o Beginning by about 8 months of age Attachment o An emotional tie with another person o Shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and  showing distress on separation Harlow’s Surrogate Mother Experiments o Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while  feeding from the nourishing wire mother Critical period o An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to  certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development Imprinting o The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical  period very early in life Basic trust (erik erikson) o A sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy
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o Said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with  responsive caregivers Types of parenting o authoritarian very strict, demanding, have rules ex: “You must brush your teeth because I said so.” o permissive barely make any demans, rarely punish ex: “Brush your teeth if you want.” o authoritative have rules, but they explain them are demanding, but they are also responsive ex: “Brush your teeth because if you don’t you’ll get cavities.” Adolescence Adolescence o The transition period from childhood to adulthood o Extending from puberty to independence  Puberty o The period of sexual maturation o When a person becomes capable of reproduction Primary Sex Characteristics o Body structures that make sexual reproduction possible  Ovaries-female Testes-male External genitalia Secondary sex characteristics o Nonreproductive sexual characteristics Female-breast and hips Male-voice quality and body hair Menarche o First menstrual period Throughout childhood, boys and girls are similar in height. At puberty, girls  surge ahead briefly, but the boys eventually overtake them.
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17/03/2008 12:26:00 Adolescence-social development Identity o One’s sense of self o The adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and  integrating various roles Intimacy o The ability to form close, loving relationships o A primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood Adolescence In the 1890’s athe average between a woman’s menarche and marriage was 
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course PSYC 1101 taught by Professor Crystal during the Spring '08 term at UGA.

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psyc3 - 3/17/2008 1:26:00 PM Infancy and childhood:...

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