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KP EE 444 HW#3 Paper Assignment Kewei Pei (8160880858) 1. The advantages and disadvantages of: a) Coal-base generation The pie chart of the Electric Energy Resources Mix in the USA shows that coal takes up a large part among all the resources for producing the electric, 48.6% in 2007 and 30.1% in 2017 (Beshir, pg. 4), and coal-fired power station generates over a third of the world’s electricity. The facts lead to the first advantage of coal-base generation, which is abundance of coal resources. There are a great of amount of coal are available to use for over three hundred years, and that closing to one trillion tons of coal reserves are estimated over 70 countries around the world (National Geographic, 2012). The rich coal reserves not only outlast oil and other fossil fuels, but also creates a long-term stable coal prices, which makes coal more affordable than others. Therefore, the affordability is the second advantage of the coal-base generation. In additional, it is not expensive to extract and mine coal reserve, so its price will remain low in a long time period. Because of the abundant deposits and cheap price, the coal-base generation is not expensive to build and can operate continuously without break. Consequently, ability of running 24/7 is the third advantage of coal-base generation. Coal-base generation is not like some renewable source-base generation that relying on wind and sun, so it can produce electric around the clock. And it has an ability to supply power either as base power or as off-peak power during the peak power period, so power plant like to use it to avoid black out in the power grid. Though the coal-base generation has some notable advantages, however the disadvantages list below urges people to get rid of dependence on coal. The major problem of coal is its negative impacts on the environment. The first one is air pollution. Basing on the CO2emission data from IEA website, coal-fired power stations emit over 10 gigatons of carbon dioxide and kill hundreds of thousands of early deaths each year (Emission, n.d.) The number is almost one-fifth of total emissions around the world. The IEA found that CO2emitted from coal was responsible for over 0.3oC out of 1oC increase in average surface temperatures above preindustrial levels , so coal is the one of the largest sources that causing the global warming. Besides emitting pollutants to the air, unlined coal also leach heavy metals into the ground water, which leads to the second major disadvantage as the water pollution. Basing on Milman’s study, he found that American coal plants produce about 100 million tons of coal ash each year, and he claimed that of the 265 US power plants that monitor ground water, 242 have reported unsafe levels of at least one pollutant derived from coal ash (Milman, 2019). The pollutants emanate from coal ash contains toxic components, such as cadmium, cobalt, chromium, as well as arsenic and lithium. Moreover, these toxins are directly linked to a range of health conditions, such as cancers, kidney damage, etc. Thirdly, not only green spaces, waterways were polluted by burning coal, local animal