anthro2 - Genetics and Evolution 3 types of diversity...

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Genetics and Evolution 14/02/2008 12:37:00 3 types of diversity cultural biological environmental genes, genetics, genotypes gene: a unit of inheritance genetics: the science of heredity and variation genotype: an organism’s hereditary makeup alleles an allele is a particular biochemical form of a gene. Genes have multiple  alleles. Alleles can be dominant or recessive Phenotype is what we see, genotype is what we are Gregor Mendel Alive in the early 19 th  century Lived in an abby Worked with breeding peas  Law of Segregation  – alternative versions of genes (alleles) account for  variations in inherited characteristics; for each characteristic, an organism  inherits two alleles, one from each parent. One of the two alleles may be  dominant over the other, with it alone being expressed.  The two alleles for  each characteristic segregate during gamete production.  Law of Independent Assortment  – the inheritance pattern of one trait will  not affect the inheritance pattern of another. Phenotype  – the observed characteristics of an organism Phenotypic plasticity and adaptive capacity
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Theory of evolution Separate than the FACT of evolution Not a force unto itself, just a statistical reality Origins of the theory o Creationism  – all biological diversity and variation originated during a  single creation event James Usher – Archbishop of Ireland Usher chronology – used the Bible to create a chronology of  creation events.  o Catastrophism  – sudden and short violent events throughout the  earth’s history caused mass extinctions and changes to the earth’s  ecosystems. William Buckland – first person to ever scientifically describe a  dinosaur. Uniformitarianism/gradualism  – process that happen now,  happened in the past. o Transformationism  – also known as gradualism and transmutation,  posits that species change over time, and that the processes we  observe now are the same that occurred in the past  (uniformatarianism) Lamarck (Lamarckian evolution) – species change, but they  change to become more complex Chambers – first to come up with an evolutionary tree Charles Darwin – 1809-1882 Naturalist On the Origin of Species… “Darwinism” artificial selection what about in nature?
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