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Unformatted text preview: Genetics and Evolution 14/02/2008 12:37:00 3 types of diversity cultural biological environmental genes, genetics, genotypes gene: a unit of inheritance genetics: the science of heredity and variation genotype: an organisms hereditary makeup alleles an allele is a particular biochemical form of a gene. Genes have multiple alleles. Alleles can be dominant or recessive Phenotype is what we see, genotype is what we are Gregor Mendel Alive in the early 19 th century Lived in an abby Worked with breeding peas Law of Segregation alternative versions of genes (alleles) account for variations in inherited characteristics; for each characteristic, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent. One of the two alleles may be dominant over the other, with it alone being expressed. The two alleles for each characteristic segregate during gamete production. Law of Independent Assortment the inheritance pattern of one trait will not affect the inheritance pattern of another. Phenotype the observed characteristics of an organism Phenotypic plasticity and adaptive capacity Theory of evolution Separate than the FACT of evolution Not a force unto itself, just a statistical reality Origins of the theory o Creationism all biological diversity and variation originated during a single creation event James Usher Archbishop of Ireland Usher chronology used the Bible to create a chronology of creation events. o Catastrophism sudden and short violent events throughout the earths history caused mass extinctions and changes to the earths ecosystems. William Buckland first person to ever scientifically describe a dinosaur. Uniformitarianism/gradualism process that happen now, happened in the past. o Transformationism also known as gradualism and transmutation, posits that species change over time, and that the processes we observe now are the same that occurred in the past (uniformatarianism) Lamarck (Lamarckian evolution) species change, but they change to become more complex Chambers first to come up with an evolutionary tree Charles Darwin 1809-1882 Naturalist On the Origin of Species Darwinism artificial selection what about in nature?...
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- Spring '08