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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 “Antebellum Era” – era of U.S. history before the Civil War I. Cotton, Slavery, and the Old South A. “Cotton is King” 1. Demand for cotton increased with growth of British textile industry in 1820’s-1830’s - North dependent on slave-picked cotton 2. New England textile mills boomed in 1840’s-1850’s 3. By 1850’s, Southern economy was dominated by, and dependent upon cotton – thus South resisted urbanization 4. By 1860’s, cotton was main U.S. export – 2/3 of all exports- OF ALL U.S., not just the South 5. Slavery grows rapidly as cotton production booms 6. South resisted industrialization – cotton was profitable B. The Slave-Owners 1. The majority of southern whites did not own slaves 2. Estimate: only approximately 25% of Southern whites owned slaves 3. “Planter Class” which owned considerable slaved exhibited enormous political power, alienating poor whites a. poor whites in Appalachian & Ozark Mountains particularly resented wealthy “planter class” b. great disparity between white Southern classes yet both rich & poor whites tended to believe in racism C. Slave Life 1. A small number of free blacks (about 250,000) existed in South in early 1860’s – mostly in Virginia and Maryland- worked as “skilled” workers 2. Mostly urban blacks were able to be free, but vast majority were in bondage – few slaves successfully escaped 3. Very rarely, slaves bought their freedom – such as Elizabeth Keckley, a seamstress who later worked for Mrs. Lincoln 4. Larger number of black slave women were single parents than in white society – due to family members being sold 5. Most slaves were Baptist or Methodist, although some blended Christianity with African tribal religion- Louisiana & Maryland = exceptions 6. Slave revolts were rare, and all were put down a. In 1822, Denmark Vesey, a free black in Charleston planned a revolt, but he and his huge followers were stopped b. In 1831, Nat Turner led slaves in Virginia to kill 60 whites. Turner’s Rebellion led to 100 executions of blacks involved in this D. Defenders of Slavery 1. John C. Calhoun – considered slavery a “positive good” – racist 2. Josiah Nott – physician from Alabama who wrote Types of Mankind in 1854 arguing black & white races are created separately Chapter 12 – An Age of Reforms I. Educational Reform 1800 INDUSTRIALIZATION 1900 Upper IMMIGRATION for the Class “masses” only A. High Schools 1. Originated in Boston in 1820’s as college-prep for mostly upper class students 2. 300 in U.S. by 1860 B. Horace Mann (1796-1859) 1. Greatest educational reformer of 19 th Century 2. Advocated raising state tax $ for public education 3. Wanted training for teachers 4. Desired students of similar age in same class 5. Wanted less use of physical punishments C. Catholic Education 1. Roman Catholics were unhappy over Protestant bias in public schools 2. Independent Catholic school system began in 1840 in NYC D. Higher Education 1. Co-education began at Oberlin College, Ohio in 1833...
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