Bio 1B Power Review Sheet - Review Ecology section Bio 1...

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1 Review: Ecology section Bio 1 Oct. 30, 2007 2 Ecology Ecology: Scientific (since 1902) study of interactions of organisms with their environments. “The most complex system* science has ever tried to understand…” *System : group of entities united by interaction or interdependence to form or act as an entire unit organism 3 How to deal with ecological complexity? Seek simplicity, and mistrust it (Alfred North Whitehead) Everything changes. Everything is connected. Pay attention (Jane Hirshfield) Observations, experiments, and models Try to predict ! useful postdiction (explanations) ! “Ecological Forecasting” 4 Tools for dealing with ecological variability: Replicates are separate (independent) units of study that are treated identically by ecologists, in order to assess variability that arises from factors we didn’t manipulate Controls are unmanipulated units that provide a baseline for comparison, an understanding of how organisms or systems will change over time or space, independent of experimental treatments Statistics test whether differences between treatments (e.g., control vs experimental) are greater than differences within treatments 5 Meadow food web response to 2x rainfall and changed seasonal timing (Blake Suttle, Ph.D. dissertation) 6 “The distribution of the world’s climates is too regular to be due to accident…” Robert MacArthur 1972 Geographical Ecology Wet tropics around equator Deserts at 30 o N, S latitudes Temperate rain forests at 60 o N, S, latitudes Antarctic and artic deserts at poles Fig 50.25 Campbell
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7 Why do desert biomes tend to occur at 30 o North and South latitude on Earth? More land mass there is far from the ocean Sandy soils in deserts have poor water retention Downward circulating air cells that rise at the equator absorb moisture Vegetation in deserts does not create moist microclimates like those in forests Most deserts are far from the ocean 8 The Earth’s major terrestrial biomes are most clearly separated on a graph of temperature vs precipitation 9 1. Climate, microclimates and biomes 2. Resources, conditions, and the fundamental niche in aquatic and terrestrial environments 3. Autecology: natural history of organisms (behavioral, physiological, and life history traits) 4. Population ecology (birth, death, growth, feeding, movement rates ! population structure and dynamics 5. Species interactions 6. Food webs 10 Benthos: life on substrate or bed of sea, lake, spring, or rivers and streams What is it like to live in various types of biomes and environments? zooplankton phytoplankton 11 Sheet flow across bouldery habitat in headwaters Insect larvae need food flux, oxygen supply (fundamental niche) and cover from predators (realized niche) 12 Currencies: energy, nutrients, time growth maintenance activity Reproduction: offspring quality offspring quantity Allocation?
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