Exam 2 - Chapter 6 Learning Ciassiool Conditioning ‘ ivan...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6: Learning Ciassiool Conditioning ‘ ivan Pavlov ' Terminology ° Variabie -—‘ Unconditionod Stimuius (U65) M lntorvai schedules - Conditioned Stimulus {CS} ' 9 Fixed M Unoonditionod Response (UCR) ' Variabie -~ Conditioned Response (GR) Consequences: Reinforcement and Punishment ° Increasing a response: .... Positive reinforcement = response followed by Basic Processes in Ciassical Conditioning " Acquisition " Extinction rewarding stimulus ’ Spontanoous recovery w Negative reinforcement = response foiiowad by ' Stimulus generalization . removal of an aversive stimulus ‘ Stimulus discrimination “ Escape learning ' Higher-ordoroonditioning ' Avoidance learning “ Decreasing arosponsa: -- Punishment Operant Conditioning " B.F. $kinner (1953} - principle of reinforcement *- “Skinnor box” -* Problems with punishment “- Emisaion of response Changing Directions in the Study .... Reinforcement contingencies 0f CWdMGHENQ " Biological Constraints on Conditioning .._. Instinctive Drift - Conditioned Taste Aversion —- Arbitrary vs. ecological conditioned stimuli * Cognitive influences on Conditioning *- Lotent teaming -- Signal relations -— Cumulative recorder Basic Processors in Operant conditioning " Aoquisition ' Shaping ' Extinction 9 Stimulus Control -~ Generalization M Response-outcome relations w Discrimination Observational Learning it Aibert Sanctum ~— Obsorvational learning ‘i‘ Basic processes "- attention - retention -- reproduction -- motivation Roinloroomont: Consequences that Strengthen Responses ' Primary Reinforcers W Satisfy biological needs ' Secondary Roinforcers — Conditioned reinforcement Schedules of Roinforoament ' Continuous reinforcement ° intermittent {partial} reinforcement * Ratio schedules ' Fixed Chapter 8: Cognition and lntetllgence C Types of Prolalems " Problems of inducing structure -‘ Series completion and analogy problems “ Problems of arrangement M String problem arid Anagrams ° Often solved through insight ' Problems of transformation - Hobbits and arcs problem "- Wator jar problem Effective Problem Solving ll Barriers to effective problem solving: - lrrelevant Information “- Functional Fixcdness ~— Mcntal Set -- Uncecessary Canon-aims Approaches to Problem Solving “ Trial-a-nd—ermr ° Heuristics - Forming subgoals '- Searching for analogies "- Changing the representation of a problem Culture, Cognitive style, and Problem Solving ‘ Field dependence w relying on external frames of reference 4' Fielcl independence -~ relying on internal frames of reference - Western culturec inspire field independence ~— Culturai influence based in ecological demands ° Holistic vs. analytic cognitive styles ncciston Making: Choices and Chances 9 Simon (195?) - theory of bounded rationality " Making Choices M Additive strategies “- Elimination by aspects -- Risky decision making "‘ Expected value ‘ Subiedive utility “ The availability heuristic 'l The mpreseotativecees heuristic ' The tendency to ignore base rates ° The commotion fallacy ' The gamblor’s fallacy l ’ Overesllmaiing the improbable l Heuristics in Jucglng Probabilities i Evolutionary Analyses: Flaws in Decision Making and Fast and Frugal Heuristics '* Cosmides and Tocby (1996) -- Unreallctlo standard of rationality -- Problem calving research based on contrived. attificial problems , " Gigerenzer (2900} w Fast and frugal heuristics “- Leec than perfect but adaptive The Evolution of intelligence Testing l ‘ Alfred Blnet and Theodore Simon {1905) w BlnetuSlmoo Intelligence Scale .... Mental age ° Lewis Terman (1916} w Staofcrwtainel Intelligence Scale "- lntelligence Quotient (i0) == MNCA x 100 l" David Wechsler (1955) -- Wechster Adult intelligence Scale 1 What Do it: Scores Mean? 6‘ The noxmai dist-mention ~— Stendard deviation the unit of measure - Distribution set so mean is 100 — Deviation lQ scores -- Conversion to percentile scores Reliability and Validity of in tests ° Exceptionally reliable — correlations Into the .905 ° Qualified validity «- valid indicators of academiclverbal intelligence, not intelligence in a truly general sense - Correlations: "- .4tls—.5tls with school success -~ mew—.803 with number of years in school ° Predictive of occupational attainment. debate about predictiveness of performance Heradirty and Environment as Determinants of Inteuiqence “. Heredity -- min and adopfion studlos - ”'7' Heritabillty estimates ' Environment - Adoption stucfles -— Environmental deprivation and enrichment —-- The Flynn effect ° Interaction ‘ -- The concept of tho reaction range Cuftural nlfferences In IQ ’ Heritabiiity as an explanation - Aurthur Jensen {1969) -- Hermstoin and Murray {1994} w The Bell Curve '9 Socioeconomic disadvantage as an explanation w Kamio’s oomfieid analogy —— socioeconomic disadvaotage New Directions in the Study of inteiligenco ' Biological Indexes and Correiates of inteiiigence « Reaction time and inspection time ... Brain size ° Cognitive Conceptualizafiohs of intoiiigenca - Sternbarg's triarchic theory and successful inteltigence " Expanding the Concept of Intellfgenco -- Gardner’s muitipte intelligences Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion Motivational Theories and Concepts ‘ Motives ... needs. wants. desires loading to goal-directed behavior ’ Drive theories ~ seeking homeostasis “ Incentive theories m regulation by external stimuli ' Evolutionary theories - maxlmizlng reproductive success The Motivation of Hunger and Eating: Biological Factors ' Brain regulation - Lateral and ventromodial hypothalamus -~ Paraventricular nucleus ' ° Glucose and digestive regulation — Glueostatlc theory ‘ Hormonal regulation m Insulin and lopiin Tho Motivation of Hunger and Eating: Environmental Factors 9 Food availability and related cues - Palatabilily - Quantity available — Variety ' Learned preferences and habits .... Classical conditioning -- Observational looming ° Stress -“ Link balwaon heightened arousallnogativo emotion and overeating The Human Sexual Response ‘ Masters and Johnson w 19% ° Stages: "- Excite-moot -- Plateau -- Orgasm '- Resolution Evolutionary Analyses of Roman Sexual Motivation ° Parental investment theory ° Gender differences in sexual activity " Gender differences in male preferences " Criticism and alternative explanations 15‘: .fi} The Mystery of Sexual Orientation ' Heterosexual - Bisexual - Homosexual --» A oootlnuum " Theories explaining homosexuality - Environmental "- Biological - lntoractionisl Achievement Motivation ' Achievement motive = need to excel -—- Thomatlo Aoperoeollon Test (TAT) -- Work harder and more persistently - Dolay gratification - Porous competitive careers -- Situational influences on achievement motives The Elements“. of Emotional Experience ' Cognitive component ‘ -‘- Subjective mnoolous experience - Positive psychology ' Physiological component "-' Bodily (autonomic) arousal - Neural cimtlits ° Behavioral component -- Characteristic overt expressions '- Facial feedback hypothesis Theories of Emotion ° James-Lanna - Fool afraid because pulse is racing " GannonnBard -- Thalarnus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and the autonomic nervous system " Sohactor’s hood-"actor Theory - Look to external cues to decide what to feel ' Evolutionary Theories a“ innate reactions with little cognitive interpretation Chapter 10: Human Development Across the Life Span Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development ° 3 phases w germinal stage == iirst 2 weeks ‘ conception, implantation. formation of placenta w embryonic stage = 2 weeks ~.~ 2 months ll formation of vital organs and systems w fetal stage = 2 months: «- birth ° bodily growlh continues. movement capability begins, brain cells multiply ‘ age of viability Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development ° illotornal nutrition - Molnu‘rrilion linked to increased risk of birth complications, neurological problems. and psychopathology ° Maternal drug use . :- Tobacoo. alcohol, prescription, and recreational drugs w Fetal'alooiiol syndrome finvironmentai Factors and Pronatat Development ° Maternal illness '— Rubeila. syphilis. mumps. genital herpes, AIDS, severe influenza "H. Prenatal health care -- Provontion through guidance The Childhood Years: Motor Development ‘l Boole Principles -~* Cephaiocoudal trend .. head to foot - Proxlmodistal trend — centemutwarrt ‘ Maturation -— gradual unfolding of genetic blueprint ° neveioomontai norms » median age —* Cultural variations Early Emotional Development: Attachment ° Separation anxioty -— Ainsworth {1979} ... The strange situation and patterns of attachment ' Secure *' Anxious-ambivalent ' Avoidant Becoming Unique: Personality Development _ ' Stage theories. three components -—- progress through stages in order "- progress through stages related to age -~ major discontinuities in development ‘ Erik Erikson (1963) -- Eight stages spanning the lifespan *- Psychosooial crises determining balance between opposing polarities in personality The Growth of Thought: Cognitive Development ’ risen Piaget (1920549303) - Assimilationi Accommodation *- 4 stages and major milestones ' Sensorlmotor - Objaol pennanence ° Preoperational - Contration, Egooonlrism ‘ Concrete Operational ‘ -~ Deoonlratlon. Reversibility, Conservation . Formal Operational ' — Abstraction Evaluating Piaget's Theory ‘ Criticism - Piaget underestimated Children‘s abilities “- Probloms with stage theories -- Universality 5 Vygolekey‘s sociocultural theory ‘ Are some cognitive abilities Innate? The Development of Moral Reasoning ‘ Koniberg (1976) “- Reasoning as opposed to behavior ° Moral dilemmas -Moasored nature and progression of moral reasoning w 3 levels‘ each with 2 sublevolo ' ° Prooonvontlonal " Conventional ' Postcorrventional Adolescence: Physiological Changes ’ Fubescenco ' ‘ Puberty «- Secondary sex characteristics - Primary sex charastaflstics “ Menarche ‘ Sperm produciion "- Ma’éuratium early v5. late ' Sex differences in effects of early maturation Adolescence: Neural Changes ' increasing myelinization ’ Changes in prefrontai cortex "fhe Search for Identity ' Erik Erzkson {1968} --— Kay chalkenge - forming a sense of identity ' James Marcia (1988) - Four identity statuses ' identity diffusion ° Identity {areclosure ' Identity moratorium “ identity achievament The Expansa of Adulthood ' Personality devetopment ' Sadat development ' Career development ° Physica! changes ' Cognitive changes Chapter 31: Personaiity: Theory, Research, and Assessment ( Defining Personaiity: Goneistenoy and Distinctiveness “ Personality Traits “ Bispositions and dimensions ' The FiveuFacior Modei M Extraversion -- Neurollcism w Openness to experience - Agreeabienoss w Conscientiousness Psychodynamlo Perspectives ' Freud’s psychoanalytic theory “- SIructure of personality ‘ id - Pleasure principle ' Ego - Reality principle ' Superego - Morality -- Levels oi awareness ‘ Conscious ‘ Unconscious " 9reconsoious Psychodynamic Perspectives ‘ Freud's psychoanalytic theory -- Conflict " Sex and Aggression ° Anxiety ° Defense Mechanisms Freud on Development: Psychosexual Stages ‘3 Sexual = physical pleasure ‘ Psychoeexual stages -- Oral, Anal. Pnailic, Latency. Genital ° Fixation m Excessive gratification or frustration ° Overemoheeis on peyohoeexuai needs during fixated stage 0916!“ Peyohwynamic Theoriete ' Cari Jung: Analytical Psychology -- Personal and collective unconscious - Archetypes 9 Alfred Adler: individual Psychology 3!} .... Striving for superiority --— Compensation Evaluating Peychodvnamic Perspectives "' Pros - The unconscious - The role of inlornai conflict - The importance of early childhood experiences -- The use of defense mechanisms ° Cons “- Poor tostebiiiiy -—~ inadequate empirical base -- Sexist views Behavioral Perspectives ’ Skinner’s views - Conditioning and response tendencies ’ Bandure's social cognitive theory -- Observational learning *- Models - Seif-eifroacy . Mischel's views - The person‘siiuation controversy Evaluating Behavioral Perspectives ° Pros "- Based on rigorous research —- insights into effects of‘ieaming and environmental factors ' Cons — Over~dependenoe on animal research - {-“ragmenied view of personality .. Dohumanizing flows Humanistic Perspeciivee ° ' Carl Rogers’s person-centered theory -— Self-concept ° Conditionaifunoondiiionel poeiiive regard ° incongruenoe and anxiety ' Abraham Maslow’s theory of self-actuallzation -- Hierarchy oi needs m The healthy personality Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives ° W03 -- Recognized importance of sublective views -- Remgnized importance of self-concept — Laid foundatiun {or positive psychnlogv ' Cons -~ Many aspects of theory are diffiwlt to test -- Unrealislic optimism -- More empirical research needed fiiologicai Perspectives ‘ Eyaenk’s theory -- Determined by genes “*Exiraverslun-iniroversion ' Behavioral genetics - Twin siudie$ -- Heritability estimates ‘ The evolutionary approach - Traits conducive to reproductive illness Evaluating Biological Perspectives ' Pros “- Convincing evidence for genetic influence “ Cons .., Too much reliance: on heritability estimates -- No comprehensive biological theory A Contemporary Empirical Approach: Terror Management Theory ' ‘ Conflici between self—preservation and ability to foresee math ' Culture and self-esteem Contemparary Empirical Approaches: “farm: Management Theory ' increasing subjects‘ mortality salience causas them to: -- Punish moral transgressions more: harshly -- Be less tolerant of criticism 'of their couniry -~ Give greater rewards to those Who upheld cuitural standards ' - Respect cuilural icons more Cuiture and Personality 'i Independent self ° lnterdependeni self ...
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