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Exam1 - Introduction to Psychology and Research Methods...

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Introduction to Psychology and Research Methods, Chapters 1 & 2 1. Be able to define psychology. Psychology is the systematic study of behavior and experience. 2. Describe each of the specialties of psychology discussed in class… Developmental - Studies the changes across life spans. (Largest) Ex: Changes in babies development over time. Social - Conformity, change in thought, emotion based on others. Cognitive - the way you think Personality - Focuses solely on you… predicts interactions Psychometrics - Make sure hiring factors are fair. Physiological - Changes within the body Experimental - Study of sensation and perception. (Interpretation) Ergonomics - interaction between humans and the devices we use. 3. Why is Wilhelm Wundt a famous figure in the history of psychology? Wilhelm Wundt is a medical doctor and sensory researcher who set up the 1 st psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. 4. What are the objectives or goals of research in psychology? 1. Description - Portray/understand a situation or group of people. 2. Prediction -What comes next. Already have some info and want to predict the next step. Ex: Predict success based on SAT scores. 3. Explanation -Why things happen with reasons. Know the cause of change. 4. Control -Must understand “explanation”. “There is a sucker born every minute”—Barnum about personality profile. 5. Why is psychology considered a science? Psychology considered science b/c it utilizes the scientific method/research. 6. What are the steps of the scientific method? 1. Formulate a problem -any interesting topic; form hypothesis able to be tested. It has to be falsifiable. 2. Decide how to gather empirical “evidence” data ; choose the ? to ask and the method; observe something actually happening; must use a sample. 3. Obtain empirical data ; run the actual trial of study 4. Test your hypothesis ; correlations run analysis(show statistics) 5. Communicate your results (most important) 7. What is a hypothesis? How does a hypothesis differ from a theory? Hypothesis is a clear estimated guess or predictive statement. A theory is different from a hypothesis b/c it has an explanation. 8. What is parsimony? Parsimony is the choosing of a hypothesis with the least amount of assumption.
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9. What’s population?sample? How different? What’s reprstiv sample? Population -group of individuals whom the conclusions will apply; all people Sample -group chosen to survey…part of the population Representative Sample - reflects/resembles the population data 10. What’s a variable? What 2 major classes of variables did we discuss? Variable- Anything that can change in value and is measured, manipulated, or controlled. Ex: Weight, hair Independent Variable -the cause; what comes first (x); it is manipulated Dependent Variable- the one that is measured; (y); the effect 11. What is an operational definition?
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