Study Sheet 2 - Abd al-Aziz al-Hakim He was a founding...

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Abd al-´Aziz al-Hakim He was a founding member in 1982 of SIIC and headed their military wing, the Badr Organization. He was the top candidate listed for the United Iraqi Coalition during the first Iraqi legislative election of January 2005 but has not sought a government post because the Alliance had decided not to include theologians in the government an Iraqi theologian and politician and the leader of SIIC, the largest political party in the Iraqi Council of Representatives. He was a member of the U.S.-appointed Iraqi Governing Council and served as its president in December 2003. Brother of the Shia leader Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim, he replaced him as leader of the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq when Mohammed Baqir was assassinated in August 2003 in Najaf. *Abd al-Majid al-Khui Due to his prominent position as a teacher and scholar in Najaf, he became an important leader of worldwide Shias. He was made the most prominent Grand Ayatollah in 1971 after the death of Ayatollah Sayed Muhsin al-Hakim. In this position, he became a patron of numerous institutions across the globe that sought to provide welfare, and also provided scholarships to theological students from across the Muslim world. He is considered as the architect of a distinct school of thought in the principles of jurisprudence and Islamic law, and one of the leading exponents of 'kalam'-scholastic theology- and 'rijal'- study of the biographies of transmitters of ahadith, the prophetic traditions, 'fiqh'- jurisprudence- and 'tafseer'- exegesis of the Qur'an. His interests included astronomy, mathematics, and philosophy. After the Persian Gulf War, Khoei was arrested by Saddam Hussein during the mass Shia uprising that followed the defeat of Iraqi forces. While under arrest, he was taken to Baghdad and forced to make public appearances with Saddam Hussein. Hussein eventually allowed Khoei to return to Najaf, but he was placed under house arrest, and died in 1992 *Abu Musab al-Zarqawi He was believed to have led al-Tawhid wal-Jihad, which allegedly later became the group called Al-Qaeda in Iraq, until his death in June 2006. Zarqawi allegedly took responsibility, on several audio- and videotapes, for numerous acts of violence in Iraq including suicide bombings and hostage executions. A militant Islamist, Zarqawi belonged to the Salafi movement in Sunni Islam. Zarqawi opposed the presence of U.S. and Western military forces in the Islamic world and opposed the West's support for and the existence of Israel. In September 2005, he reportedly declared "all-out war" on Shia in Iraq in response to the Shia government offensive on the Sunni town of Tal Afar. He is believed responsible for dispatching numerous suicide bombers throughout Iraq, especially to American soldiers and to areas with large concentrations of Shia militias.
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