The Formation of the Middle East

The Formation of the Middle East - The Formation of the...

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The Formation of the Middle East Beginnings of Islam o Muhammad 580-632 C.E. o Mecca –Pagans o Hijra of 622 to Medina – Muslims o Pagans attacked Muslims but Muslims prevailed o Islam was not born as a militant religion o Koran call out against polytheism o Fight however you can against aggressors Pagan Muslim war 622-629 Koran and Just wars o Muslims to fight enemies o But no aggression o No reprisals against conquered meccan pagans o Righteous Christians and Jews gain reprisals The Orthodox Caliphs o Sunnis Abu Bakr Umar Uthman o Shiites Ali Shiites o Some early Muslims favored the family of the prophet o Objected to Caliphs
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o Followed Ali, Fatimah and their descendants o Husayn (d. 681) lead rebellion Martyr Islam very exclusive at first then became a universal religion Ottomans pushed west from Turkey in the 1500s Ottomans feared Russia, and were greatly weakened due to WWI
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course HIST 241 taught by Professor Cole during the Fall '08 term at University of Michigan.

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The Formation of the Middle East - The Formation of the...

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