TEST 3 NOTES (1870-1914)
Masses and Classes
The New Mass Politics
Mass politic- new national political cultures; characterized by the participation of the masses;
the masses, meaning the non-elites-- people who haven’t been in power.
By the 70s, this also means non-middle class as well as non-gentry and non-aristocrats
because they have also moved into political positions.
Working class men, peasants, petty
bourgeoisie (lower mid class: bank clerks, shop assistants, typewriters), little money and no
political power people move into political sphere.
Industrialization-- broke down regional, local ties.
Industrialization cleared the decks to
allow the emergence of more national loyalties of ‘who am i?’.
How did industrialization
do this? (important examples:)
Spread of railroad system:
people who had been tied to a local village suddenly have
access to new products, new ideas (new books, magazines, ways of clothing
Now, trains make it possible for whole new ways of being, thinking,
doing, to enter into the framework.
They make it possible for travel on holidays and
more job opportunities.
Bicycle: industrial production meant that ordinary people could purchase a bicycle.
A fancy new motor car was utterly beyond their reach; same for horses.
increased 4-fold because you can go four times as far on a bike as you could by
Job prospects, courting prospects, allowed for a winder, international
Communication technologies: cheap books (no longer a luxury), cheap newspapers
(no longer just the middle class), cheap pamphlets, magazines.
Again, access to
By the 1890s, those cheap papers are including color illustrations, so they’re
much more accessible to those with a limited or no education.
You can form an
We’re beginning to develop political attitudes, allowing entrance of non-
elites into political sphere
Urbanization is closely linked to industrialization.
Urbanization is astounding, as cities
began to multiply and grow.
Breakdown of local boundaries like industrialization.
importantly, there’s the ability to be anonymous in big cities.
Not everyone knew your
By the 1870s, cities are so unhealthy that middle class are fleeing to the
The train makes this commute to work possible.
By the 1880s, most people in