Test 3 Notes

Test 3 Notes - TEST 3 NOTES (1870-1914) -3/13/09 Masses and...

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TEST 3 NOTES (1870-1914) -- 3/13/09 Masses and Classes I. The New Mass Politics Mass politic- new national political cultures; characterized by the participation of the masses; the masses, meaning the non-elites-- people who haven’t been in power. By the 70s, this also means non-middle class as well as non-gentry and non-aristocrats because they have also moved into political positions. Working class men, peasants, petty bourgeoisie (lower mid class: bank clerks, shop assistants, typewriters), little money and no political power people move into political sphere. Why? Four factors: 1. Industrialization-- broke down regional, local ties. Industrialization cleared the decks to allow the emergence of more national loyalties of ‘who am i?’. How did industrialization do this? (important examples:) a. Spread of railroad system: people who had been tied to a local village suddenly have access to new products, new ideas (new books, magazines, ways of clothing yourselves). Now, trains make it possible for whole new ways of being, thinking, doing, to enter into the framework. They make it possible for travel on holidays and more job opportunities. b. Bicycle: industrial production meant that ordinary people could purchase a bicycle. A fancy new motor car was utterly beyond their reach; same for horses. Their world increased 4-fold because you can go four times as far on a bike as you could by walking. Job prospects, courting prospects, allowed for a winder, international perspective c. Communication technologies: cheap books (no longer a luxury), cheap newspapers (no longer just the middle class), cheap pamphlets, magazines. Again, access to ideas. By the 1890s, those cheap papers are including color illustrations, so they’re much more accessible to those with a limited or no education. You can form an opinion. We’re beginning to develop political attitudes, allowing entrance of non- elites into political sphere 2. Urbanization is closely linked to industrialization. Urbanization is astounding, as cities began to multiply and grow. Breakdown of local boundaries like industrialization. More importantly, there’s the ability to be anonymous in big cities. Not everyone knew your social situation. By the 1870s, cities are so unhealthy that middle class are fleeing to the suburbs. The train makes this commute to work possible. By the 1880s, most people in
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working class neighborhoods would exist without ever seeing anyone who wasn’t also working class, except for their boss, minister, and perhaps the judge. Schoolteachers, policemen-- working class. This allowed the formation of close knit working class culture, fostering political identity and political demands 3. Spread of elementary school systems: after 1860s-1870s, most states of Europe established state-funded elementary schools. These were only grade schools. It was rare for a working class child to go to school past the age of 11 or 12. Even in the years they were in school, they’d have to take care of the baby and the harvest. They do come out
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This note was uploaded on 06/14/2009 for the course HIST 1003 taught by Professor Zucker during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Test 3 Notes - TEST 3 NOTES (1870-1914) -3/13/09 Masses and...

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