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Unformatted text preview: The Age of Global Encounters I. History, Hygiene, and Empire a. Most people in Europe wore wool, old-style, unfinished wool. When you get it wet, it stinks and shrinks (so dont wash it). There were medical and moral reasons not to bathe . Its good to stew in natural juices. The church said bathing is wrong. You shouldnt be washing gods creation. Logistics of bathing- nobody had their own indoor bathroom. I t was just too much trouble, and everyone was telling them not to. Aristocrats had perfume and powder to at least cover up the stench, but peasants didnt. b. In the 18 th century, there was a slow spread of bathing entire body and laundering clothes. Romans used to bathe all the time. Theyd sit around in water and talk. The practice became less and less common. Why suddenly in the 18 th century did Europeans decide that bathing was a good thing? c. During the 18 th century, the Church changed. Cleanliness is next to godliness, so cleanliness is associated with moral purity. I ts also during this time tat the upper classes start seeing cleanliness as a way to distinguish themselves from others. Now doctors say bathing opens pores and washes muck, so its good for health . These are all effects. d. The cause: Europeans encountered bathing in the east-- India, China, and Japan. Daily bathing was practiced by Hindus, Muslims. e. Laundering: new cloth thanks to encounters in India- cotton. I ts lighter, easy to dye, and easily washable. f. Link to European hygiene can be linked to European imperialism. I I. Phases of Imperialism a. Phase 1: 15 th and 16 th century i. Economically motivated ii. Trading post empire; establishing trading posts along the coast of Africa and then to India (Portuguese). They set up private companies as well. Then, the Spanish explorers and conquistadors. Theyre t rying to find a quicker way to China and India, not really looking for a new world. Theyre after Asian silk, cotton, tea, opium, rugs, porcelains, and the number one thing, spices. Nutmeg was the most valuable commodity in the world only after gold. The big players are Portugal and Spain. b. Phase 2: 1650-1850 i. Economically motivated ii. Portugal and Spain are slowly being pushed out by the new Atlantic Powers : England, France, and the Dutch/Netherlands. iii. We have more direct European control over new areas. Phase I is about trading posts . Phase I I is about taking control of these areas , especially in India and Indonesia, the spice islands. This is where we get the 13 colonies and new Spain. ** Four crucial features in these two phases I and I I: 1. Development and spread of mercantile capitalism . Europeans organized production of commercial crops (cash crops)....
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