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11-13 Lecture - PREJU D ICE Components of Prejudice...

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PREJUDICE: Components of Prejudice: PREJUDICE - A biased, often negative, attitude formed about a group of people. - Includes belief structures about the group of people along with expectations concerning how those members should behave. (attitudes involve affective, behavioral, and cognitive components) STEREOTYPE - A set of rigid beliefs, positive or negative, about the characteristics or attributes of a group. - An extension of our predisposition to categorize. - Becomes a problem when categorization is rigid and over- generalized. DISCRIMINATION - Overt behavior directed toward individuals simply because they belong to a particular group. o It is unjustifiable negative behavior; sometimes it can be demonstrated through adverse impact, not necessarily based on prejudice. For example, statistics and colleges. - An extension of a general learning principle. - Occurs even in the absence of underlying prejudice. Also, prejudice can exist without discrimination. Subtle vs Automatic Prejudice: Subtle: Someone opposes intimate relationships between themselves and particular out- groups versus accepting working relationships. It is subtle because it only affects if that person tries to become closer to in-group. In a working atmosphere, people are sometimes very tolerant.
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Automatic: People have implicit feelings and a sudden fear or impulse grips someone because of it. It can lead to an accusatory way of dealing with people as a result of the expectations of the negative (from prejudice). Gender bias: Most negative gender bias is toward females. In a social, historical context, we can look at gender bias. Different cultures hold up roles for females differently. Western culture has changed drastically in recent years, voting, jobs, and leadership. Most gender biases stem from stereotyped roles, especially narrowly defined roles. People expect a narrow set of behaviors and will not be flexible seeing a female out of that particular stereotype. They are maintained by conformity . We still see narrowly defined roles in the Middle East and the East. Social Sources of Prejudice: 1. “us” vs “them” thinking; ingroup vs outgroup 2. Unequal status: we may not have a level playing field, equal resources. 3. Socialization- how we define our roles; we are taught social roles when we are young children. We learn behavioral scripts specific for our gender roles. That in itself could be a potential source for prejudice. If they are taught prejudice attitudes, it is difficult o overcome that. 4. Social conformity to norms. In personality traits, it can result in the authoritarian personality. This is usually a result of somebody raised with submissiveness. An authoritarian personality demonstrates rigid, unchanging beliefs. It is also associated with ethnocentricity, a belief in superiority of a particular ethnic group. As adults, they tend to follow authority, but when in power they are harsh because they’ve been taught that authority is this way. They often create scapegoats so they can maintain this power.
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