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10-02 Lecture - CULTURE Culture includes all enduring...

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CULTURE Culture includes all enduring behaviors, attitudes, and traditions that are transmitted from one generation to another. How individuals are affected by culture in the way they interact with others. Norms are rules that tell people how to behave. You can have norms that affect things like how people talk to each other or personal space (how close people are to you when talking). Some people are eccentric, don’t go along with norm. Social Beliefs: (what social psychologists use to evaluate if someone is likely to adhere to norms) 1. Cynicism a. Belief that the powerful people will always exploit others 2. Social Complexity a. Circumstances affecting behavior 3. Reward Application a. The belief that you can succeed if you try 4. Spirituality a. faith 5. Fate Control a. Do people believe everything is predetermined or not There’s a lot of overlap between personality psychology and social psychology. Big five personality traits: civility, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness. Norms can differ based on social status or authority. Sometimes it affects the language. In the romantic languages, formality is noted in language. In some societies, norms are so regulated that some people aren’t allowed to participate much in society while others are able to participate in a wide range of behaviors. There are many norms that are similar, also. Universal norms are moral-related, taboo. Respecting someone’s privacy, eye contact when communicating with each other, some type of greeting, crimes such as murder. Anytime we see a difference, we know it’s a cultural effect. There are several differences in the norm of personal space. Across cultures, men usually prefer more distance than women. Adults tend to expect more distance than children. In Northern cultures, there’s more space preferred than in equatorial cultures.
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Western culture: embraces individualism, independence Eastern culture: collectivism, interdependence This affects values. Internal Value Individualism Collectivism Concept of self Independent ( Identity from individual traits) Interdependent (identity from belonging) Life task Discover and express one’s uniqueness Maintain connections, fit in What matters Me—personal achievement and fulfillment; rights and liberties We--- group goals and solidarity; social responsibilities and relationships Coping method Change reality Accommodate reality Morality Defined by individuals (self-based) Defined by social
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