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Unformatted text preview: CH221 Midterm 2 Ch 7 Effective nuclear charge Na = 11 e- total 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 Valence e- = 3s1 Nucleus = 11+ e- Core (previous component of electron config) = 10- e- Combined = Nucleus – core = 11+ - 10- = 1+ Valence 3s1 could be inside core, so effective nuclear charge is a bit greater than 1+ Effective nuclear charge experienced by valence electrons going down a column changes far less than it does when going down a row Effective nuclear charge increases as we go across any row of periodic table Periodic Trends (ionic radii) Cations (atoms that are positively charged (Li,Li+)) are smaller than their parent atoms Anions (atoms that are negatively charged (Na, Na-)) are larger than their neutral counterparts Li+ is smaller than Li O is smaller than O2- Ionization energy Minimum energy needed to remove electron from ground state of atom or ion 1 st ) Na = Na+ - e- 2 nd ) Na+ = Na2+ - e- 3 rd ) Na2+ = Na3+ - e- Etc… the greater the ionization energy, the more difficult it is to remove an electron...
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