Essay - Resilience and Attachment Resilience is the ability...

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Resilience and Attachment Resilience is the ability of people to positively cope with stress and catastrophe. Attachment is a theory that John Bowlby originated. It is a psychological, evolutionary theory that provides a framework to understanding interpersonal relationships between humans. An interpersonal relationship is a long term association between two or more people for example a mother and a son or daughter. Developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth is also an important person who has researched the attachment theory. Both John Bowlby’s and Mary Ainsworth’s ideas on attachment can be used as theoretical framework for research on resilient children. The basic principle of the attachment theory is that when an infant is young they become attached to a person when in stressful situation for purpose of survival. The infant will become attached to an adult figure who is always around the child and is the constant caregiver. This period is during from about when the infant is six months old to about when the infant is two years old. At the end of this time frame the child uses attachment figures as a secure base to explore from and return to. The way parents respond to the child’s actions leads to a pattern of attachment in which the child will use as a guide on his or her feelings, thoughts, and expectations in relationships
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later to come. With a lack of appropriate parenting a child could develop different behaviors. Mary Ainsworth introduced the concept of “secure base” as well as a number of attachment patterns. These patterns we secure attachment, avoidant attachment, anxious attachment and disorganized attachment. All of these we based on distinct characteristics. Secure attachment is when the child protests the caregiver’s departure and is comforted on return. The parent responds appropriately, promptly and consistently to the child’s needs. Avoidant attachment is when there is little or no stress on the caregiver’s departure, little or no visible response to return, and the quality of play is relatively low. The caregiver has little or no response to the distressed child, discourages crying, and encourages independence. Anxious attachment is when the child is sad when the caregiver leaves but is warm to a stranger. When the caregiver returns the child is angered and reluctant to warm up to the caregiver. The Caregiver has is inconsistent between appropriate and neglectful responses towards the child. Finally disorganized attachment is when stereotypes on return like freezing or rocking and lack of a coherent coping strategy. The caregiver’s behavior is often frightening, intrusive, withdrawal, negative, lack of affective communication, and maltreatment.
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This note was uploaded on 06/14/2009 for the course HEALTH 487 taught by Professor Karlson during the Spring '09 term at UMass (Amherst).

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Essay - Resilience and Attachment Resilience is the ability...

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