# 920 - Some more examples Calculate the oxidation state of...

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Section 4.3 Some more examples: Calculate the oxidation state of the  first  element in each of  the following molecules. P + (5)(-1) = 0 P = +5 phosphorus  pentafluoride P + (6)(-1) = -1 P = +5 hexafluorophosphat e ion Cr + (4)(-2) = -2 Cr = +6 chromate ion Peroxide! Ca is group 2A! O = -1, Ca +2 calcium  peroxide P + (4)(-2) = -3 P = +5 phosphate  ion C + (4)(+1) = 0 C = –4 methane

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Section 4.3 Oxidation States: Guidelines Main group metals are usually in their highest Transition metals are usually +2 or +3 ex. Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ Metals rarely have negative oxidation states Oxidation states >+3 only occur on large metal atoms or in atoms surrounded by highly electronegative atoms ex. “perchlorate” ClO 4 1– : oxygen = -2 Cl + (4)(-2) = -1 Cl = +7
Section 4.4 Polyatomic Ions: Polyatomic ions - charged groups of covalently bound atoms.   Usually made up of nonmetals.  Many are  oxoanions - an atom bound to oxygen. Some Anions: carbonate CO 3 2– hydroxide OH 1– perchlorate ClO 4 1– 4 2– (For others, see Table 4.1) oxoanions

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Section 4.5 Naming Ionic Compounds: Main Group Metals:  Cation + Anion “-ide” Ex.  NaCl   Sodium chloride Transition Metals:  Cation (roman numeral) + Anion “-ide” oxidation state
Section 4.5 Predicting the Formula for Ionic Compounds: Knowing the  preferred oxidation states  of the ions in a  compound and that ionic compounds must be  neutral , we  can predict their formulas! Ex. Predict the formula for an ionic compound made with Na  and O. Na & O Na 1+ O 2- ↑χ ) Identify the preferred  oxidation states. 2 Swap charges for  subscripts. Na 2 O Check for a  common multiple.

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920 - Some more examples Calculate the oxidation state of...

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