impulse - University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183,...

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University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory Impulse Turbine 1 Experiment #1 Impulse Turbine
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MAE 3183, Measurements II Laboratory Impulse Turbine 2 Introduction Turbines are machines which develop torque and shaft power as a result of a momentum change in the fluid which flows through them. The fluid may be a gas, vapor, or liquid. For the fluid to achieve the high velocity required to provide worthwhile momentum changes, there must be significant pressure differences between the inlet and exhaust of the turbine. Sources of pressurized gas include previously compressed (and possibly heated) gas - as in a gas turbine, or in the turbine of a turbo-charger for an I.C. engine. In power generating plants, fossil or nuclear fuel is used to boil large amounts of water into steam vapor at high pressures. A turbine converts the energy of the steam into work that drives electric generators. This process provides the electricity that we use in homes and businesses. There are numerous types of turbines. These vary from the elementary example used in a dentist drill to the large, multi-stage turbines used in the generating stations, developing as much as 1000 MW. The turbine used for the experiment, the Hilton Experimental Turbine F800, is classified as a “ simple, single stage, axial flow, impulse turbine ”. “ Simple ” indicates an elementary turbine without complications such as velocity compounding. " Single stage ” means the expansion of the fluid from the turbine inlet pressure to the exhaust pressure takes place within one stator and its corresponding rotor. “ Axial flow ” indicates that the fluid enters and leaves the rotor at the same radius and without significant radial components in the velocity. Finally, “ Impulse ” means that the fluid pressure drop (and consequent increase of velocity) takes place in the stator - i.e. in the nozzles. The fluid therefore passes through the rotor at an almost constant pressure, having only the velocity changed. It is useful to consider the turbine as a work producing machine undergoing a steady flow process, and to analyze its efficiency relative to a machine without irreversibilities or heat transfers. Theory Application of the first law of thermodynamics p 1 h 1 v 1 p 2 h 2 v 2 inlet w outlet q Figure 1 , First Law applied to a turbine Figure 1 shows a turbine through which unit mass of fluid flows under steady flow conditions. The pressures, specific enthalpies and velocities at inlet and exhaust are p 1 , h 1 , v 1 and p 2 , h 2 , v 2 respectively. While unit mass of fluid flows, a specific work transfer, w, and a specific heat transfer, q, take place. Applying the first law in the form of the steady flow equation:
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This note was uploaded on 06/15/2009 for the course MAE 3183 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at UT Arlington.

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impulse - University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183,...

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