writeup - Abstract Hydraulic engineering includes a wide...

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Abstract Hydraulic engineering includes a wide variety of concepts including fluid transportation, the means for increasing energy in fluids, and extraction of energy in fluids. When a fluid is being transported, there are energy losses associated with the imperfections of the pipe that cause shear frictional forces within the fluid. Engineers need knowledge of these concepts to properly design a system that transports fluids. In this experiment, the relative roughness of a 3/8 inch pipe is to be found along with a corrected diameter of the pipe. Principles of fluid flow through a pipe are to be better understood to equip students with the knowledge of the fundamentals of viscous flow. Results indicate that as Reynolds number increases, the friction factor decreases. The variation in the calculated diameter of the pipe differs from the given diameter is because of the imperfections in the inner surfaces of the pipe. These imperfections result in energy losses in the fluid. Introduction Engineers associate the term “fluid” with gasses and liquids. Fluids can be described as compressible or incompressible. Incompressible fluids maintain their volume even while under pressure. Incompressible fluids can be transported in ways that maintain its energy, however no fluid is perfectly incompressible. Viscous flow in incompressible fluids causes energy losses. The objective of the viscous flow laboratory is to observe the principles of viscous fluid flow and calculate the roughness of a standard 3/8 in copper pipe and its corrected diameter. Physical properties of fluids can be described by temperature, pressure, density, and viscosity. Viscosity is a fluid’s internal resistance to flow because of shearing forces within the fluid. Forces required to overcome shearing resistance between layers of fluids at various velocities is proportional to the absolute viscosity, shear area, relative velocity. These forces are inversely proportional to the thickness of the fluid film.
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Figure 1: Fluid Shear Force, (1) – stationary plate, (2) – moving plate, (3) – fluid film. Figure 1 shows fluid between two plates.
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This note was uploaded on 06/15/2009 for the course MAE 3183 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at UT Arlington.

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writeup - Abstract Hydraulic engineering includes a wide...

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