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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 7 PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS TO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 7-1. PERT and CPM can answer a number of questions about a project or the activities within a project. These techniques can determine the earliest start, earliest finish, latest start, and the latest finish times for all activities within a network. Furthermore, these techniques can be used to determine the project completion data for the entire project, the slack for all activities, and those activities that are along the critical path of the network. 7-2. There are several major differences between PERT and CPM. With PERT, three estimates of activity time and completion are made. These are the optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic time estimates. From these estimates, the expected completion time and completion variance can be determined. CPM allows the use of crashing. This technique allows a manager to reduce the total project completion time by expending additional resources on activities within the network. CPM is used in determining the least- cost method of crashing a project or network. 7-3. An activity is a task that requires a fixed amount of time and resources to complete. An immediate predecessor is an activity that must be completely finished before another activity can be started. 7-4. Expected activity times and variances can be computed by making the assumption that activity times follow a beta distribution. Three time estimates are used to determine the expected activity time and variance for each activity. 7-5. The critical path consists of those activities that will cause a delay in the entire project if they themselves are delayed. These critical path activities have zero slack. If they are delayed, the entire project is delayed. Critical path analysis is a way of determining the activities along the critical path and the earliest start time, earliest finish time, latest start time, and the latest finish time for every activity. It is important to identify these activities because if they are delayed, the entire project will be delayed. 7-6. The earliest activity start time is the earliest time that an activity can be started after all predecessor activities are completely finished. The earliest activity start times are determined using a forward pass through the project network. The latest activity start time represents the latest time that an activity can be started without delaying the entire project. Latest activity start times are determined by making a backward pass through the network. 7-7. Slack is the amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the entire project. If the slack is zero, the activity cannot be delayed at all without delaying the entire project. For any activity, slack can be determined by subtracting the earliest start from the latest start time, or by subtracting the earliest finish from the latest finish time....
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- Spring '08
- Project Management