CHAPTER 3 - Body cells are soma cells . - Sex cells are germ cells and are manufactured by the gonads (sperm and ova (egg)). - 46 chromosomes in body cell and 23 in sex cells. - Perkinges cells are found on a neuron in the brain. - Smooth muscle cells are really long and flattened out - not circular at all. - Blood Cells have a circular structure - Fat cells accumulate so much fat that the nucleus is pushed off to the peripheral. - Oocyte is an egg. Ova is plural for eggs. - In multicellular organisms Cells are always in close proximity to blood vessels. - A capillary network is where arteries are coming into blood capillaries and veins going out. - If a cell is a unicellular organism they don’t need a capillary network because exchange of fluid and nutrients occurs immediately with the environment. - Descriptions of Capillary Network o Blood comes in through arteriole (artery). Nutrients diffuse out of blood stream into the interstitial fluid (extra cellular fluid). The Cytosol of the cell is composed of watery environment referred to as intracellular fluid. Nutrients, gases and other things leave blood and diffuse into interstitial fluid and based on the needs of the cell are picked up by the selectively permeable membrane of the cell. The cell often has waste it wants to get rid of like CO2. This capillary network is a way to move it out of the cell towards other body parts for secretion. Cell that makes things for other body parties gets picked up in interstitial fluid gets into veins and moves to where it needs to go. o Extra cellular fluid is very analogous (isotonic) to plasma of blood, this characteristic has to do with homeostasis. o First hand example of capillary network when you eat glucose in order for it to get into for example the calf muscle glucose has to be dissolved and some of the plasma goes with it. Glucose than diffuses into the interstitial fluid and is then picked up by the cell and some of the interstitial fluid comes with it into the cell. The cell breaks down glucose and then it passes out the same way it came in accept it travels to the calf muscle through venules (veins). All (plasma, interstitial fluid and cytosol) have very similar components because they are all constantly exchanging with each other. If Fluid builds up in the interstitial fluid space a condition called Edema occurs. The lymphatic vessels prevents against this issue. Lymphatic vessels pick up accumulation of fluid and bring it back to blood stream. Instead of dumping back into blood stream you could output urine. It is bad to put out too much water from your body because dehydration will occur. The lymphatic systems works to keep fluid volume of blood high while still preventing against Edema. - In eukaryotic cells there are non membranous and membranous organelles .