Week14a

Week14a - Ian Sommerville 2004 Slide 1 Overview of Software...

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Unformatted text preview: Ian Sommerville 2004 Slide 1 Overview of Software Engineering Economics Fundamentals of software costing and pricing Metrics for software productivity assessment Different techniques for software estimation COCOMO 2 cost estimation model Ian Sommerville 2004 Slide 2 Fundamental estimation questions How much effort is required to complete an activity? How much calendar time is needed to complete an activity? What is the total cost of an activity? Project estimation and scheduling are interleaved management activities Ian Sommerville 2004 Slide 3 Software cost components Hardware and software costs Travel and training costs Effort costs Dominant factor in most projects The salaries of engineers involved in the project Social and insurance costs Effort costs must take overheads into account Costs of building, heating, lighting Costs of networking and communications Costs of shared facilities (e.g., library, staff restaurant, etc.) Ian Sommerville 2004 Slide 4 Costing and pricing Estimates are made to discover the cost, to the developer, of producing a software system There is not a simple relationship between the development cost and the price charged to the customer Broader organisational, economic, political and business considerations influence the price charged Ian Sommerville 2004 Slide 5 Software pricing factors Ian Sommerville 2004 Slide 6 A measure of the rate at which individual engineers involved in software development produce software and associated documentation Not quality-oriented although quality assurance is a factor in productivity assessment We want to measure useful functionality produced per time unit Software productivity Ian Sommerville 2004 Slide 7 Size related measures based on some output from the software process Lines of delivered source code Object code instructions etc. Function-related measures based on an estimate of the functionality of the delivered software Function-points Services Productivity measures Ian Sommerville 2004 Slide 8 Estimating the size of the measure E.g., how many function points? Estimating the total number of programmer months that have elapsed Estimating contractor productivity and incorporating this in overall estimate E.g., documentation team Measurement problems Ian Sommerville 2004 Slide 9 What is a line of code? The measure was first proposed when programs were typed on cards with one line per card How does this correspond to statements, e.g., in Java which can span several lines or where there can be several statements on one line?...
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Week14a - Ian Sommerville 2004 Slide 1 Overview of Software...

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