test3hun4446 - GALL BLADDER Function of the gall bladder -...

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GALL BLADDER Function of the gall bladder - store and concentrate bile - CCK-PZ (pancreozymin) stimulate bile secretion - CCK-PZ causes o Contraction of gall bladder o Relaxation of sphincter of Oddi Bile Components o bilirubin (from hemoglobin) o bile salts (emulsification, immunoglobins) o cholesterol Function - emulsification - immunoglobulins: GI integrity - Anatomical Relationship of gall bladder and the cystic duct to other organs like pancreas, liver, small intestine, common bile duct. - pear shaped - attached to under surface of liver - common bile duct: converges with pancreatic duct - sphincter of Oddi: controls the opening of common bile and pancreatic duct - CCK stimulates gall bladder to release bile down the common bile duct; also relaxes sphincter of Oddi
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Hormone that stimulates the secretion of BILE - CCK - CCK-PZ (pancreozymin) Cholelithiasis - presence or formation of stones (gallstone); can be as small as sand or as big as golf ball - usually asymptomatic (silent stones) not all individuals w/ GS experience symptoms Major types of Gallstones - Cholesterol (most common) - Pigment chronic hemolysis (billirubin) - Mixed Potential Symptoms Associated w/ Gallstones - excessive absorption of water from bile - excessive absorption of bile acids from bile (bile salts=bile acids= keeps cholesterol in soln so it doesn’t form stones - excessive cholesterol in bile - inflammation of epithelium of the gall bladder (cholecystitis): can be a cause or a symptom Risk Factors associated w/ the development of gall stones - short bowel syndrome - lipid lowering drugs - diabetes - Age (over 60) - Overweight - Rapid weight loss / fasting - Surgery for obesity - Ethnicity o Mexicans, Pina Indians, Northern European Countries - Pre-Menopausal women 4:1 than men o Estrogen hormone replacement therapy o Birth control pills: More cholesterol in bile when you take them Diet and Gallstone formation - high refined CHO, low fiber diet may increase risk - no association w/ GB disease and: o fat intake o cholesterol intake
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Nutrition Factors for Gallstone Risk Reduction - maintain a healthy weight - avoid rapid weight loss - avoid long-term fasting/starvation - vegetables, vegetable protein, vegetable fiber strong evidence of a protective effect - nut consumption?? Choledocholithiasis obstruction of bile ducts Symptoms o pain, N/V, gas, belching o severe: sweating, fever, chills, jaundice, clay-colored stools jaundice: bilirubin in blood stream, goes to skin and eyes which looks yellow bilirubin is the pigment in stools= light colored stools if bilirubin is in the skin and not the stools o dark urine: b/c bilirubin is in bloodstream and doesn’t get filtered out Cholangitis inflammation of the bile duct (biliary tract), usually caused by bacteria Cholecystitis inflammation of epithelium of the gall bladder Complications of Choledocholithiasis - directly causes liver damage/pancreatitis - directly interrupts bile flow o causes cholecystitis and cholangitis
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This note was uploaded on 06/16/2009 for the course HUN 4446 taught by Professor Mathews during the Spring '09 term at University of Florida.

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test3hun4446 - GALL BLADDER Function of the gall bladder -...

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