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hist 1302 test notes - Evolution of American foreign...

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Evolution of American foreign policy (late 19 th century-end of 1920s) Late 1800’s: new era of American imperialism Open up business to new markets because production was > than consumption WHITE MAN’S BURDEN: spread Christianity, evangelism, missionary activity o aka Imperialism of Righteousness o Chicago World’s Fair gave material shape to prevalent ideas about the superiority of American civilization and racial order, and made a strong case for expansion abroad. economic domination in new land pursuits and maybe selective colonization the Caribbean was an “American lake” Good Neighbor Policy with Latin America for economic gain 1899 Open Door Policy: by Secretary of State John Hay, US had the right to advance its commercial interests anywhere in the world, at least on the terms equal to those of the other imperialist nations Chinese marketplace too important to lose Boxer Rebellion led to second series of Open Door notes which restated the intention to trade in China Spanish-American War McKinley did not want “wars of conquest or territorial aggression” until the Maine was sunk in February 1898 Spanish-American War o “humanitarian effort” to save Cubans from Spanish rule o TR pushed for the war, propaganda to support Cubans o April 1898: “qualified independence” for Cuba o Platt Amendment 1901 Cuban-American Treaty of 1903 McKinley sent troops to Philippines to get rid of the Spanish, and then to colonize; rebels wanted total independence Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam US becomes world colonial power *Anti-Imperialist League: founded in 1898; supported economic expansion but not political domination; grew to ½ a million members by 1899 “Progressive Diplomacy” Theodore Roosevelt: US should be militarily strong to expand economic and political stature; Caribbean policeman; Panama Canal after guaranteeing Panama its independence; 1904 Roosevelt Corollary; 1905 mediated the settlement of the Russo-Japanese War 1906 Nobel Peace Prize William Howard Taft: 1910 Dollar Diplomacy replace militarism with more subtle attack of business investments, he assumed political influence would follow, but ended up requiring military support; Taft all about intervening to protect US business investments; Japan-Russian friendship due to shared dislike of US and a “neutralization” scheme for China’s railroads ended Open Door Policy.
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Woodrow Wilson: no prior experience in diplomacy, emphasized foreign investments and industrial exports as key to prosperity o Mexican Revolution: Wilson did not recognize Huerta’s regime, who had assassinated Madero (whom Wilson supported); Wilson announced that the US would only recognize governments that rested on the rule of the law; 1914 Wilson invades Veracruz; Carranza overthrows Huerta; recognized Carranza, sent Pershing after Villa; chose to negotiate with Mexico because of WWI; o believed in liberal values rooted in capitalist development, democracy, and
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