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Test Three Study Guide - Energy the capacity to do work or...

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Energy: the capacity to do work or to transfer heat Work: the movement of an object against some force Heat: the flow of energy from a body at higher temperature to on eat lower temperature when they are placed in thermal contact Kinetic energy: the energy that an object possesses by virtue of its motion Potential energy: the energy that an object possesses as a result of its composition or its position with respect to another object  Joule: the SI unit of energy, 1 kg-m 2 /s 2 Calorie: a unit of energy, it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 o C (1 cal = 4.184 J) System: the portion of the universe that we single out for study Surrounding: everything that lies outside the system that we study First Law of Thermodynamics: a statement of our experience that energy is conversed in any process. We can express the law in many ways. One of  the more useful expressions is that the change in internal energy,  Δ E, of a system in any process is equal to the heat, q, added to the system, plus the  work, w, done on the system by its surroundings :  Δ E = q + w Internal energy: the total energy possessed by a system. When a system undergoes a change, the change in internal energy,  Δ E, is defined as the heat,  q, added to the system, plus the work, w, done on the system by its surroundings:  Δ E = q + w Endothermic: a process in which a system absorbs heat from its surroundings Exothermic: a process in which a system release heat to its surroundings State functions: a property of a system that is determined by the state or condition of the system and not by how it got to that state; its value is fixed  when temperature, pressure, composition, and physical form  are specified (P,V,T,E,H) Enthalpy: a quantity defined by the relationship H = E + PV; the enthalpy change,  Δ H, for a reaction that occurs at constantly pressure is the heat  evolved or absorbed in the reaction Pressure-volume work: work performed by expansion of a gas against a resisting pressure Enthalpy of reaction: the enthalpy change associated with a chemical reaction Calorimetry: the experimental measurement of heat produced in chemical and physical processes Calorimeter: an apparatus that measures the evolution of heat Heat capacity: the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a sample of matter by 1 o
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