1 - Circulation and Respiration Blood moving to place to another-has to move occurs in circulatory system B-Cells T cells antibodies nutrients

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Circulation and Respiration Blood moving to place to another -has to move; occurs in circulatory system B-Cells, T cells, antibodies, nutrients, waste, O2, CO2, water; minerals must be transported throughout the body Mammals have 2 circulatory circuits 1) Pulmonary: lungs: exchange of gas; fills blood with oxygen 2) Systemic: heart: blood rich with oxygen -pump to heart and out to body -expand energy, use ATP to cardiac muscle and pump blood around body Blood flows from arteries to capillaries to veins -blood vessel=cannot exchange out of arteries Capillaries provide the large surface area required for these exchanges to take place Veins—collect blood towards heart: thick wall; deoxygenated/depleted blood Blood pressure changes as blood moves from arteries to capillaries -change in pressure causes fluid to leak out of the capillaries -net loss of fluid: more out than absorbing Interstitial fluid is collected by lymphatic system Lymphatic system—open circulatory system -collect interstitial fluids and insert it back into blood Lymph vessels—moves till fluid go back into heart net fluid is balanced before blood goes back to the heart. Because of low pressure in veins and lymph vessels. Movement of these fluids comes from skeletal muscles movement Mammalian circulatory system is both open and closed -open: blood vessels from heart open into internal cavities -closed: continuous blood flow through a network of blood vessels Gases move by diffusion: only from high to low concentration Hemoglobin (protein) carries oxygen in the blood Respiratory system: large surface area to maximize gas exchange -gas exchange occurs in alveoli -lungs: O2 diffuses into blood and CO2 diffuses out into lungs Oxygen is delivered through… 1) Adjusting blood flow a. Not enough blood to fill capillaries, little muscles control which one gets filled up and what stays empty. Restrict blood flow to ones where they don’t need oxygen. 2) By changing blood pH. a. Cells transport CO2 into blood, hemoglobin release O2 at lower pH b. Lungs absorbs CO2, hemoglobin binds to O2 well.(less carbonic acid) c. Oxygen binds to hemoglobin in oxygen rich blood leaving the lung and dissociates from hemoglobin in oxygen poor tissues. Nutrition and Digestion -During digestion complex molecules are broken down and then used to build needed molecules and to produce energy. Food Pyramid Federal food subsidies vs. food pyramid Tax money usage is opposite of what we need to eat Protein needed per day= 0.8g/kg of body weight People don’t need very much protein -20 Amino acids, use sugar to make 12 amino acids 8 essential amino acids from consuming other organisms -corns and other grains -legume plants Many cultures combine these foods in their traditional diets; beans and rice, beans and corn, peanut butter on bread, soy and rice, lentils and bread or rice The Calorie Restriction society -for ppl trying to live longer by eating fewer calories -rats who ate less, lived longer. -smelling food reduces life span in CR flies
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This note was uploaded on 06/16/2009 for the course BIO 53665 taught by Professor Iverson during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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1 - Circulation and Respiration Blood moving to place to another-has to move occurs in circulatory system B-Cells T cells antibodies nutrients

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