FINAL - FINAL Strong Inference: disprove hypothesis and...

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FINAL Strong Inference: disprove hypothesis and accept hypothesis that cannot be disproved. 1) Devise multiple hypothesis 2) Design experiments to eliminate one or more of the hypotheses 3) Carry out experiments in a manner that gives a clean result 4) Repeat, refine hypothesis Mitosis: DNA perspective. -sister chromatids are replicated DNA (2 strands of DNA) Role: growth and development, repair and turnover of cells, reproduction (asexual) Tetrad=pair of sister chromatids/ only diploid cells can go under meiosis Meiosis: splits apart the pairs of chromosomes Crossing Over=proteins in the cell cut and relegate the DNA, increasing the genetic diversity in gametes (recombination) Independent assortment/ random assortment = two equally possible arrangements of chromosomes 2^n Few parasites=low environment stress=constant environment=asexually reproduce Sexual Dimorphism: differences between males and females (body size, color…) Three alleles(A,B,O), co-dominance (AB), incomplete dominance (red+white=pink) Testcross—determining dominant/recessive and zygosity. Sickle Cell anemia=malaria=caused by point mutation Independent assortment=the inheritance of genes on different chromosomes Down Syndrome=too much info, three of chromosome 21 Both mitochondria and chloroplast have DNA Endosymbiotic theory:proposed origin of mitochondria and chlorplasts from free-living bacteria to cellular organelles. Twin studies: heritability of various traits -identical(monozygotic twins) same sex twin one fertilization -fraternal (dizygotic twins) can be different sexx twins 2 fertilizations Caveats: number of twins studied and how different are the environments Environment is equal—genetic differences Environment is different—environmental differences To increase monogamous, increasing receptors of hormones is more effective than increasing a number of hormones. In vitro fertilization—embryo is implanted into a woman’s uterus -pregnant woman is related to the embryo, but sometimes they are unrelated -effects of environment and genes MONOGAMY Social Monogamy =pair lives works together but not faithful Sexual monogamy = pair raise young and only copulate with each other Sperm competition—sperms survive for several days in reproduction tract. Last male advantage-to ensure fatherhood males mate and produce copious quantities of sperm. Sperm from the second male displaces the sperm from the first male. Mating pairs may be genetically incompatible o Incompatible=greater genetic diversity o Compatible=less due to self fertilization Reproductive success=evolutionary success EVOLUTION: WHAT IS IT? DNA Transcription mRNA translation protein Genes code for proteins (or RNA). These gene products give rise to traits As Organisms reproduce, the DNA is passed on to the next generation = Mutations occur <ex. Sickle cell anemia> DNA must be replicated before it can be passed Evolution= a species’ genetic component changes as the individuals reproduce. Changes are based on how the DNA changes and
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This note was uploaded on 06/16/2009 for the course BIO 53665 taught by Professor Iverson during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas.

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FINAL - FINAL Strong Inference: disprove hypothesis and...

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