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test 4 - Circulation and Respiration Primary function of...

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Circulation and Respiration -blood moving to place to another -has to move; occurs in circulatory system B-cells, T cells, antibodies, nutrients, waste, O2, CO2, water, minerals must be transported throughout the body Circulatory Circuits 1) Pulmonary—lungs a. Exchange of gases 2) Systemic—heart a. Pumps to heart and out to body b. Expand energy, use ATP to cardiac muscle and pump blood around body Blood flows from arteries to capillaries to veins -blood vessel cannot exchange out of arteries Capillaries provide the large surface area required for these exchanges to take place Veins—collect blood towards heart; thick wall Blood pressure changes as blood moves from arteries to capillaries -change in pressure causes fluid to leak out of the capillaries -net loss of fluid; more out than absorbing Interstitial fluid is collected by lymphatic system Lymphatic system -open circulatory system -collect interstitial fluids and insert it back into blood Lymph vessels=moves till fluid goes back into heart net fluid is balanced before blood goes back to the heart Because of low pressure in veins and lymph vessels, movement of these fluids comes from skeletal muscles movement Mammalian circulatory system is both open and closed. Adjusting flow—not enough blood to fill capillaries, little muscles control which one gets filled up and what stays empty, -restrict blood flow to ones where they don’t need oxygen. Gases move by diffusion: only from high to low concentration Hemoglobin (protein) carries oxygen in the blood. Respiratory system—large surface area to maximize gas exchange -gas exchange occurs in alveoli -lungs—O2 diffuses into blood and CO2 diffuses out into lungs Oxygen is delivered through 1) Adjusting blood flow 2) By changing blood pH a. Acidic CO2: Hemoglobin release O2 at lower pH b. Basic Hemoglobin bins O2 well (less carbonic acid) Nutrition and Digestion During digestion complex molecules are broken down and then used to build needed molecules to produce energy. Federal Food subside vs. Food pyramid What tax money are used for does not match what we should eat Protein needed per day = 0.8g/kg of body weight 20 amino acids: use sugar to make 12 amino acids 8 essential amino acids from eating other animals -corns and grains and legume plants Many cultures combine these foods in their traditional diets: beans, rice, beans and corn, peanut butter on bread, soy and rice, lentils and bread or rice. Calorie Restriction society -for ppl trying to live longer by eating fewer calories -smelling food reduces life span in CR flies -fruit flies live longer with calorie restriction -calorie restriction + smell of food= reduces life span -normal diet=same life span no matter what Overweight ppl live longer than normal, underweight, or obese ppl (BMI) The Digestive System -complex molecules are broken down and then used to build needed molecules and to produce energy -animals take in complex molecules from the environment for energy production -occurs outside of our cells
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