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Lecture 2-Foundations - Lecture Two For the purposes of...

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Lecture Two Foundations For the purposes of this course, the envelope is subdivided into: 1) Foundations 2) Floors 3) Exterior walls (inclusing windows) 4) Roofs 5) Interior walls Ground conditions Soil Soil is the general term applied to earth material. The type of foundation is dictated by the soil beneath the topsoil, as determined by a soil test (drilling on site).
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In general, foundations should not be placed on organic soil. Soil is tested for its bearing capacity: 1) Clay: elastic, problematic 2) Fill: unacceptable 3) Hardpan: (compacted mixture of clay, sand, etc.) good bearing 4) Inorganic silt: dangerous 5) Organic silt: too compressible for use 6) Peat: no good 7) Rock: best to rest foundations on of it can be reached easily 8) Sand, Gravel: good base unless the sand is too fine Water 1) A high groundwater table might affect soil bearing and increase the cost of excavation. It also might make the removal of water from the foundation difficult. 2) Rainwater can harm the foundation by deformation. It can actually lift the buidling. 3) Design considerations to deal with water conditions include waterproofing and sump pumps. Heaving Heaving is cause by the expansion of soil when frozen. Foundations must extend below the frost line, the lowest level at which soil freezes. 1) Frost line in Montreal: 1,2 m 2) Frost line in James Bay: 1.8 m 3) Frost line in Florida: 0.0 m
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Settlement occurs on all foundations except those built on rock (due to soil compression and the water table).
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