Lecture 10-Characteristics of Steel as Used in Building

Lecture 10-Characteristics of Steel as Used in Building -...

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Lecture Ten Characteristics of Steel as Used in Building Composition: Steel consists of layers of iron ore, coke (a form of carbon), and limestone.
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Strength and malleability of the steel are functions of the carbon content. Carbon contents are as follows: 1) Cast iron= 3-4% carbon 2) High carbon steel= less than 2% carbon 3) Milled steel= 3/10 of 1% carbon
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Production process of steel: 1) Approximates proportion: 7 parts iron ore, to 3 parts coke, to 1 part limeston, to 16 parts air. 2) Coke is burned. 3) Oxidation with air produces carbon monoxide. 4) Limestone is combined with the ore, reacting with impurities in the ore to produce a slag. 5) Carbon monoxide from step 3 reacts with the ore to produce elemental iron. 6) Result is molten steel, which is cast into ingots. 7) Hot ingots are squeezed between rollers into rectangular shapes called blooms. 8) Blooms are rolled into structural shapes (at 1260 degrees C).
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Shaping of Steel: 1) Rolling into shapes under heat decreases the thickness of the steel pieces while increasing their length. 2) Reduction and shaping breaks down crystals and makes them smaller and more compact. 3) The result is steel which is both stronger and more malleable. Sections of steel elements: 1) Steel elements are named for their characteristic section. 2) Because steel is relatively expensive, sections are designed to carry the maximum load with the minimum cross sectional area.
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The typical types of steel elements: 1) Wide Flange: The I- bean, or H-beam. “Flange” refers to the horizontal parts of the “I”, the vertical part is known as the “web”. Flanges range between 8” and 30” in height. If the web height exceeds the flange width the section is an “I”, if the flange width exceeds the web height, the section is an “H”. 2) Channel: The “C” flange. Flanges range between 2” and 4” while webs range between 3” and 24”.
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