Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - Exam2StudyGuide Chapter5

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Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 5 Definition of learning:  a relatively durable change in behavior that is due to experience. (this  can be voluntary or involuntary) Classical conditioning:  a form of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to invoke  a response that was originally by another stimulus. o Pavlov’s study The original study that involved meat powder and a bell. He would ring the bell before  giving them meat powder, and soon the dogs acquired a response to the bell. o Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) This is when two things are paired together o Unconditioned response (UCR) A stimulus that invokes the unconditioned response. (the meat) o Neutral stimulus A stimulus that invokes no response (the bell) o Conditioned stimulus (CS) A previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, developed the capacity to  invoke a conditional response. (bell) o Conditioned response (CR) A learned response to a conditioned stimulus. o Conditioned Association  This is when two things are paired/linked through conditioning/learning (learning  takes place) o Types of conditioning Stimulus:  gives the unconditioned stimulus and the neutral stimulus at the same time Trace conditioning:  gives the unconditioned stimulus first, and the neutral stimulus  right after. There is no overlap and the neutral and the unconditioned can be swapped. Short-delay conditioning:  neutral stimulus first, then the unconditioned stimulus,  there is overlap and this work the best, in this order. o Other Issues in Classical Conditioning Extinction:  a gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response. Generalization:  occurs when a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned  stimulus elicits similar results. Discrimination:  a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus  does not elicit a similar response. spontaneous recovery
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o Aversive conditioning:  when a traumatic event occurs and becomes a conditioned  response (conditioned taste aversion) Operant conditioning:  form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their  consequences. o How different from classical conditioning? Classical conditioning behavior is determined by what happens Operant conditioning behavior is determined by what happens after. o Reinforcement:  when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to  make that response. Positive:
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This note was uploaded on 06/18/2009 for the course PSYC 107 taught by Professor Hull during the Spring '07 term at Texas A&M.

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Exam 2 Study Guide - Exam2StudyGuide Chapter5

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