Dactylyneisamarinenaturalproduct

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Unformatted text preview: drocarbons:
 (1)
Alkanes
contain
only
carbon‐carbon
single
bonds.
 (2)
Alkenes
contain
one
or
more
carbon‐carbon
double
bonds.
 (3)
Alkynes
contain
one
or
more
carbon‐carbon
triple
bonds.
 (4)
Aromatic
hydrocarbons
contain
benzene‐like
stable
structures
(discussed
later).
 Saturated
hydrocarbons:
contain
only
carbon‐carbon
single
bonds
e.g.
alkanes.
 Unsaturated
hydrocarbons:
contain
double
or
triple
carbon‐carbon
bonds
(alkene,
alkynes,
 aromatics)
and
contain
fewer
than

maximum
number
of
hydrogens
per
carbon.
 Capable
of
reacting
with
H2
to
become
saturated.
 Representative
Hydrocarbons
 Alkanes
 The

principle
sources
of
alkanes
are
natural
gas
and
petroleum.
 The
smaller
alkanes
(C1
to
C4)
are
gases
at

room
temperature.
 Methane
is
a
 
 (1)
component
of
the
atmosphere
of
many
planets
and
 
 (2)
major
component
of
natural
gas.

 Methane
is
produced
by
primitive
organisms
called
methanogens
found
in
mud,
 sewage
and
cows’
stomachs.

 Representative
Hydrocarbons
 Alkenes
 Ethene
(ethylene)
is
a
major
industrial
feedstock.
 Used
in
the
production
of
ethanol,
ethylene
oxide
and
the
polymer
polyethylene.
 Propene
(propylene)
is
also
very
important
in
industry.

Its
molecular
formula
is
C3H6.
 Propene
is
used
to
make
the
polymer
polypropylene
and
is
the
starting
material
for
the
 synthesis
of
acetone.
 Many
alkenes
occur
naturally.
 Ethyne
(acetylene)
is
used
in
welding
torches
because
it
burns
at
high
 temperature.
 Represenative
Hydrocarbons
 Alkynes
 Many
alkynes
are
of
biological
interest.
 Capillin
is
an
antifungal
agent
found
naturally.
 Dactylyne
is
a
marine
natural
product.
 Ethinyl
estradiol
is
a
synthetic
estrogen
used
in
oral
contraceptives.
 Benzene
is
the
prototypical
aromatic
compound.
 The
Kekulé
structure
(named
after
August
Kekulé
who
formulated
it)
is
a
six‐membered
 ring
with
alternating
double
and
single
bonds
 Representative
Hydrocarbons
 Benzene
 Benzene
is
the
prototypical
aromatic
compound.
 The
Kekulé
structure
(named
after
August
Kekulé
who
formulated
it)
is
a
six‐membered
 ring
with
alternating
double
and
single
bonds
 Representative
Hydrocarbons
 Benzene
 Benzene
does
not
actually
have
discreet
single
and
double
carbon‐carbon
bonds.

All
 carbon‐carbon
bonds
are
exactly
equal
in
length
(1.38
Å).

This
is
between
the
length
of
 a
carbon‐carbon
single
bond
and
a
carbon‐carbon
double
bond.

Resonance
theory
 explains...
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This note was uploaded on 06/19/2009 for the course CHEM 2311 taught by Professor Tyson during the Fall '07 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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