updatedChapter 2 Notes

Methanech4hasaboilingpointof162ocwhereasethanec2h6hasa

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Unformatted text preview: fferent
atoms
bonded
together
and
generally
attached
to
a
 hydrocarbon
backbone.
 

 In
general,
functional
groups
are
the
sites
of
chemical
reactivity
within
a
molecule.
 In
general,
functional
groups
contribute
to
many
of
the
physical
properties
of
a
 molecule.
 Alkanes
do
not
have
a
functional
groups.

Carbon‐carbon
single
bonds
and
carbon‐ hydrogen
bonds
are
generally
very
unreactive.
 Alkyl
Groups
and
the
Symbol
R
 Alkyl
groups
are
obtained
by
removing
a
hydrogen
from
an
alkane.

Often
more
than
 one
alkyl
group
can
be
obtained
from
an
alkane
by
removal
of
hydrogen
from
 different
locations
on
the
alkane.
 R
is
the
symbol
to
represent
a
generic
alkyl
groups.

The
general
formula
for
an
 alkane
can
be
abbreviated
R‐H
 A
benzene
ring
with
a
hydrogen
removed
is
called
a
phenyl
and
canbe
represented
in
 various
ways
 Toluene
(methylbenzene)
with
its
methyl
hydrogen
removed
is
called
a
benzyl
group
 Alkyl
Halides
 In
alkyl
halides,
halogen
(F,
Cl,
Br,
I)
replaces
the
hydrogen
of
an
alkane.


 Alkyl
halides
are
classified
based
on
the
type
of
carbon
to
which
the
halogen
is
 attached.

If
the
carbon
is
attached
to
one
other
carbon
that
carbon
is
primary
(1o)
and
 the
alkyl
halide
is
also
1o.

If
the
carbon
is
attached
to
two
other
carbons,
that
carbon
 is
secondary
(2o)
and
the
alkyl
halide
is
2o.

If
the
carbon
is
attached
to
three
other
 carbons,
the
carbon
is
tertiary
(3o)
and
the
alkyl
halide
is
3o.
 Alcohols
 In
alcohols
the
hydrogen
of
the
alkane
is
replaced
by
the
hydroxyl
(‐OH)
group.

An
 alcohol
can
be
viewed
as
either
a
hydroxyl
derivative
of
an
alkane
or
an
alkyl
 derivative
of
water.
 Alcohols
are
also
classified
according
to
the
carbon
to
which
the
hydroxyl
is
directly
 attached.
 Ethers
 Ethers
have
the
general
formula
R‐O‐R
or
R‐O‐R’
where
R’
is
different
from
R.

These
can
 be
considered
organic
derivatives
of
water
in
which
both
hydrogens
have
been
replaced
 by
organic
groups.

The
bond
angle
at
oxygen
is
close
to
the
tetrahedral
angle.
 Amines
 Amines
are
organic
derivatives
of
ammonia.

They
are
classified
according
to
how
many
 alkyl
groups
replace
the
hydrogens
of
ammonia.

This
is
a
different
classification
scheme
 than
that
used
in
alcohols
and
alkyl
halides.
 Aldehydes
and
Ket...
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