Thetwo signalsarethencomparedandaprintoutisobtained

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Unformatted text preview: ones
 Both
contain
the
carbonyl
group.
 Aldehydes
have
at
least
one
carbon
attached
to
the
carbonyl
group.
 Ketones
have
two
organic
groups
attached
to
the
carbonyl
group.
 The
carbonyl
carbon
is
sp2
hybridized.

It
is
trigonal
planar
and
has
bond
angle
about
 120o.
 Carboxylic
Acids,
Esters
and
Amides
 All
these
functional
groups
contain
a
carbonyl
group
bonded
to
an
oxygen
or
nitrogen.
 Carboxylic
Acids:
 Contain
the
carboxyl
(carbonyl
+
hydroxyl)
group.
 Esters:
 A
carbonyl
group
is
bonded
to
an
alkoxyl
(OR’)
group.
 Amide
 A
carbonyl
group
is
bonded
to
a
nitrogen
derived
from
ammonia
or
an
amine.
 Nitriles
 An
alkyl
group
is
attached
to
a
carbon
triply
bonded
to
a
nitrogen.

This
functional
group
 is
called
a
cyano
group.
 Summary
of
Important
Families
of
 Organic
Compounds
 Summary
(cont.)
 In
Class
Problem:
 Identify
the
functional
groups
designated
by
the
arrow
for
the
following
 molecules.
 Physical
Properties
and
Molecular
Structure
 The
strength
of
intermolecular
forces
(forces
between
molecules)
determines
the
 physical
properties
(i.e.
melting
point,
boiling
point
and
solubility)
of
a
compound.
 Stronger
intermolecular
forces
usually
result
in
high
melting
points
and
boiling
points.

 More
energy
must
be
expended
to
overcome
very
strong
forces
between
molecules.

 More
energy
must
be
expended
to
“separate”
the
molecules
from
one
another.


 The
are
many
types
of
intermolecular
forces.

The
types
of
intermolecular
forces
 important
for
understanding
the
interactions
between
two
or
more
molecules
are
a
 direct
function
of
the
structure
of
the
interacting
molecules.
 (1)  Ionion
interactions
 (2)  Ion‐dipole
interactions
 (3)  Dipole‐dipole
interactions
 (4)  Hydrogen
bonding
interactions
 (5)  Van
de
Waal’s
interactions
 The
physical
properties
of
some
representative
compounds
are
as
follows:

 Ion‐Ion

(Charge‐Charge)
Interaction
Forces

 Ion‐ion
forces
are
between
positively
and
negatively
charged
ions
are
very
strong
 forces.

A
compound
consisting
of
ions
is
held
together
in
a
crystalline
lattice
by
the
 attraction
of
these
opposite
charges.

 In
ionic
solids
the
melting
points
are
high
because
a
great...
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This note was uploaded on 06/19/2009 for the course CHEM 2311 taught by Professor Tyson during the Fall '07 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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