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Unformatted text preview: Chapter
2
 Representative
Carbon
Compounds
 Functional
Groups
 And
 Intermolecular
Forces
 Bonding
in
Organic
Molecules
 Carbon
forms
strong
covalent
bonds
to
other
carbons
and
to
other
elements
such
as
 hydrogen,
oxygen,
nitrogen
and
sulfur.
 



Some
Examples
of
Bond
Dissociation
Energies
 
Bond
Type 
kJ/mol 
 
kcal/mol
 
 





C‐H 
 
380‐435 
 
91‐104
 
 





C‐F 
 
439‐451 
 
105‐108
 
 





C‐Cl 
 
330‐349 
 
79‐84
 
 





C‐Br 
 
263‐293 
 
63‐70
 
 





C‐I 
 
234 
 
56
 
 





C‐C 
 
334‐368 
 
80‐88
 
 





C‐O 
 
380‐385 
 
91‐92
 This
accounts
for
the
vast
variety
of
organic
compounds
possible.
 
 
 Bonding
in
Organic
Molecules
 Carbon
forms
strong
covalent
bonds
to
other
carbons
and
to
other
elements
such
as
 hydrogen,
oxygen,
nitrogen
and
sulfur.
 



Some
Examples
of
Bond
Dissociation
Energies
 
Bond
Type 
kJ/mol 
 
kcal/mol
 
 





C‐H 
 
380‐435 
 
91‐104
 
 





C‐F 
 
439‐451 
 
105‐108
 
 





C‐Cl 
 
330‐349 
 
79‐84
 
 





C‐Br 
 
263‐293 
 
63‐70
 
 





C‐I 
 
234 
 
56
 
 





C‐C 
 
334‐368 
 
80‐88
 
 





C‐O 
 
380‐385 
 
91‐92
 This
accounts
for
the
vast
variety
of
organic
compounds
possible.
 Organic
compounds
are
grouped
into
functional
group
families.
 A
functional
group
is
a

specific
grouping
of
atoms
(e.g.
carbon‐
carbon
double
bonds
are
 in
the
family
of
alkenes,
and
carbon‐oxygen
double
bonds
are
in
the
family
of
carbonyls)
 An
instrumental
technique
called
infrared
(IR)
spectroscopy
is
used
to
determine
the
 presence
of
specific
functional
groups.
 
 
 Hydrocarbons:
Representative
Alkanes,
Alkenes
 Alkynes,
and
Aromatic
Compounds
 Hydrocarbons
contain
only
carbon
and
hydrogen
atoms.
 Subgroups
of
Hydrocarbons:
 (1)
Alkanes
contain
only
carbon‐carbon
single
bonds.
 (2)
Alkenes
contain
one
or
more
carbon‐carbon
double
bonds.
 (3)
Alkynes
contain
one
or
more
carbon‐carbon
triple
bonds.
 (4)
Aromatic
hydrocarbons
contain
benzene‐like
stable
structures
(discussed
later).
 Hydrocarbons:
Representative
Alkanes,
Alkenes
 Alkynes,
and
Aromatic
Compounds
 Hydrocarbons
contain
only
carbon
and
hydrogen
atoms.
 Subgroups
of
Hy...
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This note was uploaded on 06/19/2009 for the course CHEM 2311 taught by Professor Tyson during the Fall '07 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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