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updatedChapter 2 Notes

updatedChapter 2 Notes - Chapter2 FunctionalGroups And...

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Chapter 2 Representative Carbon Compounds Functional Groups And Intermolecular Forces
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Bonding in Organic Molecules Carbon forms strong covalent bonds to other carbons and to other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. Some Examples of Bond Dissociation Energies Bond Type kJ/mol kcal/mol C‐H 380‐435 91‐104 C‐F 439‐451 105‐108 C‐Cl 330‐349 79‐84 C‐Br 263‐293 63‐70 C‐I 234 56 C‐C 334‐368 80‐88 C‐O 380‐385 91‐92 This accounts for the vast variety of organic compounds possible.
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Bonding in Organic Molecules Carbon forms strong covalent bonds to other carbons and to other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. Some Examples of Bond Dissociation Energies Bond Type kJ/mol kcal/mol C‐H 380‐435 91‐104 C‐F 439‐451 105‐108 C‐Cl 330‐349 79‐84 C‐Br 263‐293 63‐70 C‐I 234 56 C‐C 334‐368 80‐88 C‐O 380‐385 91‐92 This accounts for the vast variety of organic compounds possible. Organic compounds are grouped into functional group families. A functional group is a specific grouping of atoms ( e.g . carbon‐ carbon double bonds are in the family of alkenes, and carbon‐oxygen double bonds are in the family of carbonyls) An instrumental technique called infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to determine the presence of specific functional groups.
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Hydrocarbons: Representative Alkanes , Alkenes Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Hydrocarbons contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Subgroups of Hydrocarbons: (1) Alkanes contain only carbon‐carbon single bonds. (2) Alkenes contain one or more carbon‐carbon double bonds. (3) Alkynes contain one or more carbon‐carbon triple bonds. (4) Aromatic hydrocarbons contain benzene‐like stable structures (discussed later).
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Hydrocarbons: Representative Alkanes , Alkenes Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Hydrocarbons contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Subgroups of Hydrocarbons: (1) Alkanes contain only carbon‐carbon single bonds. (2) Alkenes contain one or more carbon‐carbon double bonds. (3) Alkynes contain one or more carbon‐carbon triple bonds. (4) Aromatic hydrocarbons contain benzene‐like stable structures (discussed later). Saturated hydrocarbons : contain only carbon‐carbon single bonds e.g. alkanes. Unsaturated hydrocarbons : contain double or triple carbon‐carbon bonds (alkene, alkynes, aromatics) and contain fewer than maximum number of hydrogens per carbon. Capable of reacting with H 2 to become saturated.
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Representative Hydrocarbons Alkanes The principle sources of alkanes are natural gas and petroleum. The smaller alkanes (C 1 to C 4 ) are gases at room temperature. Methane is a (1) component of the atmosphere of many planets and (2) major component of natural gas. Methane is produced by primitive organisms called methanogens found in mud, sewage and cows’ stomachs.
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Representative Hydrocarbons Alkenes Ethene (ethylene) is a major industrial feedstock.
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