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Chapter 1 Notes - Chapter1 THEBASICS (1...

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Chapter 1 THE BASICS BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
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Organic Chemistry : The chemistry of the compounds of carbon (1) The human body is largely composed of organic compounds. (2) Organic chemistry plays a central role in medicine, bioengineering etc. Amoxicillin AZT Fluoxetine DDT Capsaicin
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Vitalism It was originally thought organic compounds could be made only by living things by intervention of a “vital force”. Fredrich Wöhler disproved vitalism in 1828 by making the organic compound urea from the inorganic salt ammonium cyanate by evaporation: Inorganic Organic
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The Structural Theory of Organic Chemistry Between 1858 and 1861, Kekule, Couper, and Butlerov provided the foundations for structural theory. Central Premises: (1) Valency: atoms in organic compounds form a fixed number of bonds. (2) Carbon can form one or more bonds to other carbons.
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Isomers (1) Isomers are different molecules with the same molecular formula. (2) Many types of isomers exist. Example: Consider two compounds with molecular formula C 2 H 6 O. These compounds cannot be distinguished based on molecular formula. However they have different structures. The two compounds differ in the connectivity of their atoms. Constitutional Isomers Constitutional isomers are one type of isomer. They are different compounds that have the same molecular formula but different connectivity of atoms. They often differ in physical properties (e.g. boiling point, melting point, density) and chemical properties.
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In Class Problems: (1) Draw all the constitutional isomers of C 4 H 10 O.
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Three Dimensional Shape of Molecules Virtually all molecules possess a 3‐dimensional shape which is often not accurately represented by drawings, It was proposed in 1874 by van’t Hoff and le Bel that the four bonds around carbon where not all in a plane but rather in a tetrahedral arrangement i.e . the four C‐H bonds point towards the corners of a regular tetrahedron.
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Three Dimensional Shape of Molecules Consider the constitutional isomers ethyl alcohol and dimethyl ether: Ethyl Alcohol Dimethyl Ether
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Chemical Bonds: The Octet Rule Octet Rule: (1) Atoms form bonds to produce the electron configuration of a noble gas because the electronic configuration of noble gases is particularly stable. (2) For most atoms of interest this means achieving a valence shell configuration of 8 electrons corresponding to that of the nearest noble gas. (3) Atoms close to helium achieve a valence shell configuration of 2 electrons. (4) Atoms can form either ionic or covalent bonds to satisfy the octet rule. Electronegativity (1) Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract electrons. (2) Electronegativity increases from left to right and from bottom to top in the periodic table (noble gases excluded). (3) Fluorine is the most electronegative atom and can stabilize excess electron density the best.
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Ionic Bonds (1) When ionic bonds are formed atoms gain or lose electrons to achieve the electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas; there is a transfer of electrons from one atom to another.
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