Lecture 5-new - Animal Evolution The Invertebrates Lecture...

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Lecture 5 Animal Evolution – The Invertebrates
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Learning Objectives To describe the characteristics and definitions of animals o To gain knowledge regarding the origin of animals o To describe the various features of the different groups of invertebrates.
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Learning Outcomes Upon successful completion of the lecture, students will be able to: Define and explain the characteristics of all animals. Relate the evolution of ancestor cells that evolved to form the animal cells and eventually the animal itself Explain the characteristics of the various invertebrates in terms of their body plans, eating habits, habitats and unique features
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Define Animals. Multicelled: o cells having diploid chromosomes. e Aerobic heterotrophs o Undergo Sexual/Asexual reproduction o Lack backbone o Lack cell wall o Most move actively o Most form tissues
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Animal Tissues Cells interact with each other form the epithelium & connective tissues o Epithelium – o Connective tissues – o Primary tissues develop into all tissues and organs. o These primary tissues are: Ectoderm Endoderm Mesoderm
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Primary Tissues Ectoderm ; lines the body surface o Endoderm ; layers the inner gut lining o Mesoderm ; forms in between these two, sources of muscles, forms many organs. o Radial animals have all the tissues except mesoderm o Bilateral animals have all three tissues
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Body Size of Animals
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Similarities & differences of animal body plans can be compared with regards to these features: body symmetry & cephalization type of gut body cavities segmentation.
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Bilateral c Radial
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Body parts arranged regularly around a central axis. o Body plan adapted to intercept food coming from any direction. o These animals live in water
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Right half & left half are mirror images of each other. o Have anterior, posterior, dorsal & ventral. o Evolved from forward-creeping species. o Forward end encounter food & other stimuli. o Subsequently cephalization occurred??? o Bilateral body plans & cephalization coevolved
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Gut is a digestive sac or tube with one opening or two openings o Can be divided into two: o Saclike c Tubular ones   
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Sac-like gut: is an incomplete digestive system first to evolve o Tubular gut: is a complete digestive system starts at mouth and ends with anus
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Meaning space o Exist in between the gut & body wall of most bilateral animal o Has unique tissue lining; peritoneum. o Peritoneum; encloses organs in the coelom.
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Type of body cavity found in most bilateral animals o Key component in the larger & more complex animals. o Less complex invertebrates do not have body cavity (coelom), tissues fill the regions between gut and body wall. o Protects the internal organs from shocks as they are cushioned in the coelomic fluid.
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